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The French Revolution . Chapter 22, Section 3 The Radical stage of the revolution. After the Constitution of 1791…. The bourgeoisie had brought about many changes during the first phase of the revolution Ended special privileges, limited the king’s powers

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the french revolution

The French Revolution

Chapter 22, Section 3

The Radical stage of the revolution

after the constitution of 1791
After the Constitution of 1791…
  • The bourgeoisie had brought about many changes during the first phase of the revolution
    • Ended special privileges, limited the king’s powers
  • Some people felt the revolution had gone too far...but some felt that it had not gone far enough.
  • What followed is now described as the second stage, or the radical stage of the revolution.
the royal f amily flees
The Royal family flees...
  • Marie Antoinette makes plans for their escape to the Austrian Netherlands.
  • They attempt to flee June 20, 1791.
  • Arrested and forced to return to Paris.
  • King Louis XVI lost any remaining support that he had from the people of France.
the sans culottes
The Sans-culottes…
  • After the King tries to flee, radicals want France to become a republic.
  • Many urban workers became radicals
  • Among these radicals are the sans-culottes
    • Wage earners and small shopkeepers
  • So far, the urban workers had gained fewer benefits than the bourgeoisie and the peasants.
    • They wanted more control in the government, high wages, lower food prices, and an end to food shortages.
  • Some bourgeoisie saw this as a threat, others capitalized on the opportunity to become leaders of the radicals.
war with austria and prussia
War with Austria and Prussia…
  • The French worried that Austria might help the émigrés start a counterrevolution and bring back the Old Regime
  • They decided to strike first – declared war on Austria
  • Prussia joined Austria and they both invaded France
  • During the war, a new, radical government took over – the Commune
  • The Commune had the king arrested
  • They also got rid of the National Assembly and created the National Convention
  • All adult males could vote for the national convention – not just taxpayers
  • The National Convention felt that the king and his family were traitors and a threat to the revolution
  • They voted to have the king executed by guillotine
  • Marie Antoinette was executed a few months later
back to the war
Back to the war…
  • The war started to go better for France – they kicked out the Prussians and Austrians
  • They invaded Austrian Netherlands
  • Other countries got nervous
  • Britain and Spain joined with Austria and Prussia
  • Now France was being overwhelmed and food was running out
jacobins and girondists
Jacobins and Girondists…
  • Two factions within the National Convention
    • Jacobin – More radical, led by Robespierre
    • Girondist – More moderate
  • Both groups led by members of the Bourgeiosie
  • Jacobins used the crisis in France as an excuse to have Girondist leaders arrested
  • Jacobins created the Committee of Public Safety
dictatorial government
Dictatorial Government…
  • Committee of Public Safety had almost unlimited power
  • Robespierre was its leader
  • Their job was to feed the hungry, stop enemy troops, and get rid of opponents of the government
  • They created a draft to build up France’s army
  • They created the largest army in the history of the world – over 1 million soldiers
the reign of terror
The Reign of Terror…
  • Robespierre and the Jacobins decide to get rid of anyone who criticizes their government
  • They begin jailing and executing people
  • Committee of Public Safety executes between 20,000 and 40,000 people
  • The trials were a unjust – No proof was needed to sentence someone to death; just a rumor was enough to get the guillotine
  • When the French realized they had gone too far, they blamed Robespierre
  • Robespierre was executed on July 28, 1794
after robespierre
After Robespierre…
  • The reign of terror ended and the Jacobins were driven from power
  • A new government called the Directory was created
  • Made up of five men
  • Mostly represented the Bourgeoisie
  • They were a weak government
  • Ruled for about five years – until the end of the French Revolution