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Alien & Sedition acts. The controversial foreign policy of the Federalists prompted domestic protest and governmental repression. President John Adams. Presentation created by Robert Martinez Primary Source Content: America’s History Images as cited.

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alien sedition acts

Alien & Sedition acts

The controversial foreign policy of the Federalists prompted domestic protest and governmental repression.

President John Adams

Presentation created by Robert Martinez

Primary Source Content: America’s History

Images as cited.

slide2
As the U.S. fought an undeclared maritime war against France, immigrants from Ireland attacked Adams’s pro-British foreign policy.

www.vallejogallery.com

slide3

To silence the critics, the Federalists controlled Congress enacted three coercive laws that threatened individual rights and the fledgling party system.

www.flickr.com

slide4

The Naturalization Act lengthened the residency requirement for American citizenship – and so the right to vote – from five to fourteen years.

www.keen.com

slide6
The Sedition Act prohibited the publication of insults or malicious attacks on the president or members of Congress.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gazette_of_the_United_States

he that is not for us is against us read the federalist gazette of the united states
“He that is not for us is against us,” read the Federalist Gazette of the United States.

pasleybrothers.com

slide8

It was the Sedition Act that generated the most controversy. Prosecutors arrested more than twenty Republican newspaper editors and politicians, accused them of sedition, and convicted and jailed a number of them.

Political cartoon of Congressman Lyon

(holding tongs), and later arrested

under the Sedition Acts,brawling

with Congressman Roger Griswold.

www.encyclopedia.com

slide9

What developed was a constitutional crisis. With justification, Republicans charged that the Sedition Act violated the First Amendment’s prohibition against “abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press.”

www.anh-usa.org

slide10

Republicans did not appeal to the Supreme Court because the Court’s power to review congressional legislation was uncertain and because most of the justices were Federalists.

etc.usf.edu

slide11

Instead, Madison and Jefferson looked to state legislatures for a solution. At their urging, the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures issued resolutions in 1798 declaring the Alien and Seditions Acts to be “unauthoritative, void, and of no force.”

www.nj.com

slide12

The resolution set forth a states’ rights interpretation of the Constitution, asserting that the states had a “right to judge” the legitimacy of national laws.

www.xtimeline.com

the debate over the sedition act set the stage for the presidential election of 1800
The debate over the Sedition Act set the stage for the presidential election of 1800.

www.encyclopedia.com

slide14
With Republicans strongly supporting Jefferson’s bid for the presidency, President Adams reevaluated his foreign policy.

youngnationproject-amber.bl

slide15

Rejecting Hamilton’s advice to declare war against France, President Adams put country ahead of party and entered into diplomatic negotiations that ended the fighting.

Alexander Hamilton

slide16

Despite Adams’s statesmanship, the campaign of 1800 degenerated into name-calling. The Federalists attacked Jefferson’s values, branding him an “irresponsible pro-French radical....”

Thomas

Jefferson

slide17
…. and because he opposed state support of religion in Virginia, “the arch-apostle of irreligion and free thought.”

apush-wiki-marlborough-scho

slide18

Thanks to a low Federalist turnout in Virginia and Pennsylvania and the three-fifths rule (which boosted electoral votes in the southern state), Jefferson won a narrow 73 to 65 victory over Adams in the Electoral College.

bill.ballpaul.net

slide19
However, the Republican electors also gave 73 votes to Aaron Burr of New York, who was Jefferson’s vice presidential running mate.

voiceinverse.wordpress.com

slide20
The Constitution specified that in the case of a tie vote, the House of Representatives would choose the president.

todaysdocument.com

slide21

For thirty-five ballots, Federalists in the House blocked Jefferson’s election, prompting a new rumor that Virginia was raising a military force to put Jefferson in office.

www.ushistory.org

slide22
Ironically, it was arch-Federalist Alexander Hamilton who ushered in a more democratic era by supporting Jefferson.

fearistyranny.wordpress.com

slide23

Calling Burr an “embryo Caesar” and the “most unfit man in the United States for the office of president,” he persuaded key Federalists to allow Jefferson’s election.

thehonestlyblog.wordpress

slide24

Jefferson called the election the “Revolution of 1800.” The bloodless transfer of power demonstrated that governments elected by the people could be changed in an orderly way, even n times of bitter partisan conflict.

etext.virginia.edu

slide25
In his inaugural address in 1801, Jefferson praised this achievement, declaring, “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists.”

www.web-books.com

slide26

Defying the predictions of European conservatives, the republican experiment of 1776 had survived a quarter-century of economic and political turmoil.

americanlibertyriders.ning