Bruce Cheatham Rugby Presentation HPE 324. History of Rugby.
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The only equipment needed to play rugby is a ball.
The size and shape of the ball was not written into the rules until 1892:- Length 11 to 11 1/4 inches- Circumference (end on) 30 to 31 inches- Circumference (in width) 25 1/2 to 26 inches- Weight: 12 to 13 ounces - Hand sewn with not less than 8 stitches to the inch
Early balls were made from a pig bladder that was covered by leather. The size of the ball depended on the size of the pig bladder.
Around 1862 Richard Lindon introduced Indian rubber bladder inner-tubes and because of the pliability of rubber the shape of the balls gradually changed from a sphere to the shape we know today.
2004 IRB Law 2 states:The ball must be oval and made of four panels.Length in line 280 - 300 millimetersCircumference (end to end) 740 - 770 millimetersCircumference (in width) 580 - 620 millimetersMaterial: Leather or suitable synthetic material. It may be treated to make it water resistant and easier to grip.Weight: 410 - 460 gramsAir pressure at start of play: 65.71-68.75 kilopascals, or 0.67-0.70 kilograms per square centimeter, or 9.5-10.0 lbs per square inch.
Rugby can be played on a football field or similar dimensions.
Duration: A rugby match is played over 80 minutes, split into two 40-minute halves generally with a 10 minute half time break.
Number of players: Each team has 15 players. Eight players make up the forwards or “pack” (roughly similar to the linemen and line backers in American football) and seven players make up the backs (roughly similar to the backs and "skill positions" in American football).
How to Play: The ball can be moved by carrying it in the hands, or kicking at any time during play, but under no circumstances can the ball be passed or made to go forward by the ball carrier other than by kicking the ball. If the ball is hit or passed forward without it being kicked, it is called a knock on and is an infraction which results in a scrum to the opposition.
A scrum is used to restart in a number of situations and involves each team's forwards coming together, binding together by the shoulders over the 'mark' and trying to hook the ball back to their team's side once the ball is placed in the channel. This is similar to a tip off in basketball with each team having a chance at winning the ball.
When the ball is being kicked during a kick off or 22 meter drop out it must be drop kicked.
If a ball is kicked or taken out of bounds the ball is restarted by a lineout. This is similar to the throw-in in soccer and works on the same principle.
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2. (2007). The Ball. Retrieved from:
3. (2007). Scoring through the ages. Retrieved from:
4. (2010 ). Basic Rules of Rugby. Retrieved from:
5. (2010). Rugby Pitch Diagrams. Retrieved from: