GERUND & INFINITIVE - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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gerund infinitive n.
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GERUND & INFINITIVE

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  1. GERUND & INFINITIVE

  2. A GERUND is the –ingform of a verb (e.g. talking, playing, understanding)AN INFINITIVE is to + the simple form of a verb (e.g. to talk, to play, to understand) Gerunds may perform all the function that nouns do. A gerund is the –ing form of a verb that can be used as a noun. A gerund can function as a subject as well as an object Examples: Playing tennisis fun s v in this example, playing is a gerund. It is used as the subject of the sentence. Playing tennis is a gerund phrase.

  3. Weenjoyplaying tennis s v o In this example, playing is used as the object of the verb enjoy He’s excited aboutplaying tennis Prep o In this example, playing is used as the object of the pre- position

  4. USING GERUNDS AS THE OBJECTS OF PREPOSITION A gerund is frequently used as the object of preposition 1. We talked aboutgoing to Canada for our vacation 2. I am interested inlearningkarate. 3. Sue is in charge oforganizing the meeting Negativeform of Gerund: not precedes a gerund 4. We talked aboutnotgoing to the meeting, but finally prep not gerund decided we should go

  5. COMMON VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDS (beberapakatakerja yang diikuti Gerunds) Examples: 1. I enjoy playing tennis V Gerunds are used as the objects of certain verbs in this example, enjoy is followed by Gerund (playing) Enjoy is not followed by an infinitive The most common incorrect form is: I enjoy to play tennis 2. Joe quit smoking 3. Joe gave up smoking The above examples (number 2 & 3) have the same meaning. The verb ‘quit’ and the two-word verbs ‘give up’ should be followed by gerunds. The following is a list mentioning about verbs that should be used with gerunds

  6. Enjoy appreciate mind Quit (give up) finish (get through) delay Avoid postpone (put off) stop Keep (keep on) consider (think about) mention Suggest discuss (talk about) COMMON VERBS FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVES (beberapakatakerja yang diikuti Infinitive) Examples: 1. I hopeto see you again soon v infinitive 2. He promisedto be here by ten v infinitive Negative form of infinitive: not precedes infinitive 3. He promisednotto be late v not infinitive

  7. Some verbs are followed immediately by an infinitive, as in (1) and (2). For the negative form not precedes the infinitive, as in (3). Below are verbs which are followed by infinitive Hope to intend to agree to Promise to offer to appear to Seem to pretend to would like to Expect to want to refuse to Plant to decide to ask to need to 4.My grandmother toldmeto be here at ten V pronoun infinitive o’clock 5. The police ordered the driver to stop V noun infinitive

  8. Some verbs are followed by pro(noun) and then an infinitive, as in (4) and (5). Below are verbs which are followed by pro(noun) then an infinitive. Tell someone to advise someone to Encourage someone to remind someone to Invite someone to permit someone to Allow someone to warn someone to Require someone to order someone to Force someone to ask someone to Expect someone to would like someone to Want someone to need someone to

  9. 6. I was toldto be here at ten o’clock v infinitive 7. The driver was orderedto stop v infinitive these verbs are followed immediately by an infinitive when they are used in the passive, as in (6) and (7). COMMON VERBS FOLLOWED BY EITHER INFINITIVE OR GERUND (beberapakatakerja yang diikuti gerund dan infinitive) The following are a verbs which are followed by infinitive or gerund (with no different in meaning)

  10. Beginninglike hate Start love can’t stand Continue prefer can’t bear Examples: • It began to rain/raining • I started to work/working • (there is no differences between “began to rain” and “began raining”)