English Speaking Countries Fig. 5-1: English is the official language in 42 countries, including some in which it is not the most widely spoken language. It’s also used & understood in many others.
Some important terms to know: Language: System of communication thru speech • Literary Tradition: syst. of written communication (documents, novels, etc.) Official Language: lang. used for a country’s gov’t for laws, reports, etc. The 3 traits that best distinguish cultural values: a. LANGUAGE b. RELIGION C. ETHNICITY Add these terms... Vernacularand/or colloquial speech: Every day language– lang. of the “common ppl” NOT standard language EX’s: ain’t y’all
K–1 Engl.: Origin, Diffusion, & Dialects Where are Eng. Lang. speakers? English: spoken by 1/2 billion in 57 (10TH ed.) countries --1/3 of the world uses English as its official lang. -More speakers than any except Mandarin in China Why English diffused: 1st = Brit. Empire took to colonies -now the official lang. in most of the former British colonies Explain why we speak Engl. now: Brit. In N. Amer. became dominant power when they defeated the French (migration yrs: 1607 – 1840)
How the USA diffused Engl.: Thru… *wars (WWI, WWII, etc.) *US is economic power (trade) *globalization of communication systems (TV, music, internets, satellites, etc.) Engl. is classified as Germanic lang. How did this replaced languages in the British Isles. Include terms: Angles, Jutes, Saxons, & Vikings: -450 CE: Angles (S. Denmark), Jutes (N. Denmark), & Saxons (NW Germany) ; about 800 CE Vikings invade--& some stay Explaining the Norman (& when??) influence on English: 1066: Normans invade Brit.; Normans ruled and French (Latin-based) = official lang. Anglo-Saxon (old English) = Simpler terms: sky, horse, man, woman Norman/French (Latin) = more complex terms: celestial, equine, masculine, feminine
Invasions of England 5th–11th centuries Groups that brought what became English to England included Jutes, Angles, Saxons, and Vikings. The Normans later brought French vocabulary to English. NOTE century for EACH in your pkt
In which areas of the British Isles did these groups end up? Angles: Saxons: Jutes SOUNDS of British from BBC: http://www.bbc.co.uk/voices/recordings/group/ulster-armagh.shtml
Modern Germany: Denmark and part of today’s Schleswig-Holstein was “land of the Angles”
Dialect: Regional lang. variation; distinctive in vocab., spelling, & pronunciation Standard lang.: well established, acceptable dialect used in schools, govt., etc. EX: Upper class Brit. (BRP: Brit. Received Pronunc) **Vernacular & colloquial: everyday, “common” speech. Colloquial relates more to SLANG speech Basics of different, older English dialects: Kentish (SE) Jutes; W. Saxon (SW): Saxons; Mercian (Central): Saxons Why SE (in Engl.) dialect = "proper" standard Engl.? B/C there = London, upper-class, gov’t., $$, plus Oxford & Cambridge Univ.’s How it was diffused thru Britain: Invention of PRINTING press allowed for this diffusion The 3 main English dialects today: Northern, Midland, Southern
Why English is USA’s standard lang.: Brits settled Atlantic Coast in 1600’s & were main immigr. thru 1840 Why is it NOT “official” language? USA doesn’t HAVE an official (legal, by law) language...
Old & Middle English Dialects Fig. 5-3: The main dialect regions of Old English before the Norman invasion persisted to some extent in the Middle English dialects thru the 1400’s.
Why US Engl. changed from Brit Engl: isolation (Atlantic distance) 3 main differ.’s of ways US & Brit Engl.: vocab., pronunciation, & spelling Main reasons the 2 differed right off: Distance, new terms & items in landscape, mix of people How these affected the new US Engl.: a) Native Americans: new words: moose, raccoon, chipmunk, hurricane, canoe, squash b) inventions: new common names: torch/flashlight; lift/elevator; lorry/transfer truck or semi c) Noah Webster: chose “Amer.” way…didn’t know some…also later T. Roosevelt “simplified” some like “colour”, etc. Why US/Brit varied from start: Distance meant only letters, documents, etc., to communicate; Also began to have other immigrants in USA
Why US/Brit varied from start: Distance meant only letters, documents, etc., to communicate; Also began to have other immigrants in USA The 2 reasons US English is more like 18th cent. English than Brit Eng. is? A) Standard SE Engl. not set till almost 1800; in US was already changing B) few colonists were upper-class, so didn’t speak standard Why is big differences (distinctions) in New Engl. accents & Southern accents now: More distance between N-E & S. (D- D-?); came from different parts of Engl. & from Scotland & Ireland & Wales Why Mid-Atlant. dialects are very differ. from the Southern & New England: NE = Puritans (mid-class SE English); Mid-Atlan. = Scots; South. = lower class SE English
Dialects in the Eastern U.S. Fig. 5-4: Hans Kurath divided the eastern U.S. into three dialect regions, whose distribution is similar to that of house types (Fig. 4-9).
Some differences thru US, main dialect differences are seen on East Coast (BUT... Great Lakes: Scandinavia) Isogloss: word usage boundary: area where a word is used Usually what areas? More rural EX: pail (NE); bucket (South & Mid-Atl.); brook (NE), run (Mid-At.), branch (S) EX: dialectal pronunciations: S: ha-af (half); mi-yen (mine);New Eng.: “hot” (heart); “lock” (lark) Thru West, US standard Eng. comes mainly from… Mid-Atlan. areas Why? Most western settlers from there How western mov't. affected spread of dialects: Mid-W & S. of Ohio: VA + Southern N. of Ohio River: Mid-Atlantic; Some New-Engl: Great Lakes
Spread of dialects in US—Notice the “flow” WESTUS = 35x size of England…but has lots less regional dialectsYou see MAIN differences where? More similar where?
Origins of English: Which cultures added MOST to English Language?Germanic:Which 3 Germanic + 1 “other” Germanic group?French: From What historic event?Latin: WHY do you think this was influential?(was the lang. of which important force?
KEY - 2 (P. 144): Indo-European Language Family Why Engl. is“related” to other lang’s: (FBG) How languages are “related:” Language family: collection of lang.’s related thru common ancestor long before recorded history EX: English in which? Indo-European (world’s most extensive... over the largest area) Language branch: collection of languages w/ common ancestor several 1000’s yrs. ago EX: Romance (?) Indo-Iranian Germanic Balto-Slavic Language group: shared origin, relatively recent past; similar grammar & vocab. EX: W. Germanic (hi & lo) = Engl., Dutch, Flemish To remember: “fill big glasses” “fat bottomed girls”
Language family spoken by more than any other: Indo-European How many people use? Over 3 billion (1st lang. for 2.5 bill.) has over 100 lang.’s Indo-Eur. is broken into 8 branches The 4 of these that are spoken by lots of ppl & where these are found: Indo-Iranian (S. Asia) Romance (SW Euro. & Lat. Amer.) Germanic (NW Eur. & N. Amer.) Balto-Slavic (E. Eur.) WHAT do you notice about the LAST 3 of these????
“High” & “low” subgroups & why “hi/lo”? b/c of mountains & lowlands (elevations) Hi-Germanic: standard German Lo Germanic: Dutch, Engl., Flemish…etc. How English is “classified” Indo-European ...Germanic... W. Low Germanic (F-B-G) N. Germ. lang.’s spoken in Scandinavia -the 4: Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Icelandic -all came from Old Norse (Vikings), spoken in Scandinavia prior to 1000 CE
The 4 main branches of the Indo-European language family include Germanic, Romance, Balto-Slavic, and Indo-Iranian.
Germanic Branch of Indo-European Germanic branch today is divided into N. & W. Germanic groups. English is in the West Germ. grp.
Indo-Iranian: Of all Indo-Eur., has the most speakers: over 1 billion in more than 100 lang.’s Eastern group = Indic Western group = Iranian IndicGroup: India:main lang. is Hindi written w/ a script called Devanagari Spoken versions very different, but written is the same for all b/c only until recently (1800-1900’s) few Hindi speakers could read & write Pakistan: main language: Urdu Spoken much like Hindi, but written in Arabic b/c most Pakistanis are Muslims & lang. of Qu’ran is Arabic Both of these (Hindi/Urdu) are based on = Hindustani India’s languages are very diverse: over 1 billionppl & using lang.’s from 4 different lang. families: • Indo-European 2. Dravidian 3. Sino-Tibetan 4. Austro-Asiatic
South Asian Languages & Language Families Indo-European is the largest of the four lang. families in India The country of India has 18 official languages.
Why India has 18 different “official” lang.’s: So many grps., objected to having just 1 (Dravidian closest to #1 ) Main lang. of Bangladesh: Bengali Percentage of Indians speaking Engl.: 1 % Why sometimes used as a “common” lang.: So many lang., need a main one; also Brit. econ. influence Iranian Group: Uses Arabic alphabet; Main lang.’s: a) Persian (aka “Farsi”) in Iran b)Pashto (aka Pashtu) (E. Afghan. & W. Pakistan) (the PPL of these areas are called “Pathan” 7th Ed.) c) Kurdish used by the Kurds, located on borders of W- Iran, N-Iraq, & E-Turkey
Balto-Slavic: Once all one lang.,…now 4 main groups: East West South plus a Baltic group Main ones = Eastern groups, especially Russian, which is spoken by 80% of Russians & is 1 of the 6 official langs. of the U.N (United Nations) Russian gain importance in new areas after 1945 b/c they gained power after WWII….& forced Eastern European countries to learn & use Russian Is still important in there b/c still used by leaders of former USSR countries for communicating w/ each other & for economic cooperation In order of importance In this region: 1. Russian 2. Ukrainian 3. Belorussian Western/Southern Slavic: 3 W. Slavic langs., in order of most spoken = 1) Polish 2) Czech 3) Slovak
ADD: BALKAN REGION!!!! In order to “balance” using their 2 official lang. in the old Czechoslovakia, what did TV announcers do? 1st ½ of show used 1 language, then 2nd half of show switched to the other language 2 most important South Slavic lang.’s: Serbo-Croatian Bulgarian Most differ.’s betwn. these Slavic lang. are SMALL EX: they can understand each other Regional differ.’s seen in lang. since Bosnia & Croatia broke from Yugoslavia in ‘90’s: -MUSLIMS in Bosnia brought in Arabic words; -CROATS got rid of Serbian words & took new ones These lang.’s in the future: Might become more & more different from each other b/c of hostilities betwn. Ethnic Romance lang.’s, like other lang.’s, didn’t just appear but evolved… Romance from Latin
France: 3 main dialects: Standard French =_Francien (aka Parisienne) --the dialect of the South is langd’oc (from “Aquitaine”) --the Northern dialect is langue d’oil ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Spanish: Standard SP: Castilian (are few rural dialects) About 90% of speakers of SP & Port. live outside of Spain & Portugal b/c of colonialism (aka imperialism) Catalan: around Barcelona: was illegal to speak at various times. • Spanish is the official lang. of 18 Latin Amer. countries b) Brazil’smain lang.: Portuguese… & they have 18 times as many speakers of Portuguese than Portugal does!
Brazil ‘s lang. is Portuguese …why? b/c of the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494); Pope ended argument over who controlled what in Sp. New World… Western S. Amer. = Spain, East = Portugal Vulgar Latin: Spanish & Portuguese differ from French, Italian, etc., b/c Roman soldiers (the “commoners”) went into the outer regions, such as Spain They spoke a “common” (like “lower-class” ...the vernacular lang.)form of Spanish, known now as “vulgar Latin”
2 EXs: of how Old & New Worlds continue to blend and/or evolve languages • Books & TV have big influence….changes all the time… technology….memes? b) Brazil & Portugal standardized Portuguese, & Port. lost some of the ways Portg. spoke & the Brazilians’ version of the language won out “Creole” or “creolized language”: Mix Indigenous ppl’s lang. + colonists’ lang. EX’s: French Creole (Haiti) Papiemento (Creolized Spanish) Netherlands Antilles (W. Indies) Portguese Creole (Cape Verde Islands…off W. African coast)
The Romance Branch of Indo-European includes 3 of the world’s 12 most widely spoken languages (Spanish, French, & Portuguese), as well as a number of smaller languages and dialects.
“Proto-Indo-European”: The theory that there was once 1 single language for all ppl Can’t prove it existed b/c was pre-historic Some still think it DID exist b/c of commonalities in languages & lang. families -Words winter, snow, & ocean possible parts of puzzle b/c are no similar word for “ocean”…so probably all came from place w/o ocean BIG Debate about oldest place to trace this language to… Was it the Anatolians or Kurgans? Kurgans: betwn. Russia & Kazakhstan; about 4300 BCE; militaristic, nomadic warriors Anatolians: *** This aka as “Renfrew’s theory” Around Turkey; about 6300 BCE; an agricultural society --these 2 are theories about how Indo-European spread from Asia thru Europe
Kurgan Theory of Indo-European Origin Fig. 5-9: In the Kurgan theory, Proto-Indo-European diffused from the Kurgan hearth N. of the Caspian Sea, about 7,000 yrs ago.(hunter/gatherers)
Anatolian Hearth Theory of Indo-European Origin Fig. 5-10: In the Anatolian hearth theory, Indo-European originated in Turkey before the Kurgans and diffused through agricultural expansion.
Language Families of the World Fig. 5-11: Distribution of the world’s main language families. Languages with more than 100 million speakers are named.
K-3: Where are other lang. Families distributed? You DO need to KNOW these!! Percentage in the World and distributions of languages: Lang. families where found % of the world speakers Indo-Europ. All over except Afri./Arabia 50% Sino-Tibetan China & near China 20% Afro-Asiatic Mid-East & N. Afr. 5% Austronesian SE Asia 5% Niger-Congo Sub-Saharan Africa 5% Dravidian India (mid &Southern) 5%
Trace back (classify) the following languages: Language branches/roots where it’s mostly spoken • Hindi Indic--Indo-Iranian--Indo-European--Nostratic? India b) Mandarin Sinitic—Sino-Tibetan—Sino-Caucasian China c) Engl. W.Germ.—Germanic—In-Europ.—Nostratic US/UK • TagalogAustronesian—Austric Philippines e) Hebrew-Arabic Semitic— Afro-Asiatic—Nostratic Israel Arab. Penin. f) Swahili Benue—Congo---Niger-Congo E. Africa
Major Language Families % of World Popula. The % of world population speaking each of the main language families. Indo-European & Sino-Tibetan together represent almost 75% of the world’s people.
Sino-Tibetan spoken in China • Sinitic branch: over a billion spkers. Largest: Mandarin (2nd largest = Cantonese) Chinese Uses Ideograms: symbol that = an idea EX: Slide 31 + 33 b) Austro-Asiatic: SE Asia Lrgest.: Vietnamese Spoken in Thailand, Laos, Vietnam Chi/Jap/Kor.: Why 3 are v. different…some similarities: Japanese: isolated b/c are islands; Japanese uses ideograms--borrowed Chinese writing Korean: isolated b/c is a peninsula; Korea. is phonetic, like the West - Korean & Japanese probably Altaic (central Asia) -A major Austro-Asiatic lang.: Vietnamese; Alphabetdevised by Rom. Catholic missionaries--was a Fr. colony
Chinese Ideograms Chinese language ideograms mostly represent concepts rather than sounds (is not phonetic). The 2 basic characters at the top can be built into more complex words.
Japanese Writing: Ideograms Writing form borrowed from Chinese… but lang. is probably Altaic like Korean (from where?) Japanese has 2 writing systems!
Korean Writing: phonetic, like Western languages; It does NOT use ideograms like Chinese & Japanese
Afro-Asiatic (aka Semitic-Hamitic): Though small, why is this branch so important?? Used for Holy Texts of 3 MAJOR WORLD RELIGIONS: Judaism, Christianity, & Islam The six (6) official languages of the UN: a) Mandarin b) English c) Russian d) Spanish e) French f) Arabic Altaic: a) Turkey changed from Arabic in ’28 b/c felt would help modernized econ. & culture b) Other countries w/ Altaic lang.’s: Mongolia, Kazakhstan, W. China c) Most Altaic lang. spkers’ Religion: Islam d) Russians forced them to use another alphabet, Cyrillic
Uralic: 3 MAIN Uralic countries: Estonia Finland Hungary These are NOT part of Indo-European family.. They are a small SEPARATE family.