Critical Thinking Define critical thinking and discuss why it is an important topic to be addressed by today's educators. How is critical thinking similar to and different from creativity? Developed by W. Huitt, 1999
Critical Thinking “Good” thinking is an important element of life success in the information age (Huitt, 1993; Thomas & Smoot, 1994). This presentation will present a brief overview of what we know about critical thinking. Huitt, W. (1995). Success in the information age: A paradigm shift. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Based on a background paper developed for a workshop presentation at the Georgia Independent School Association, Atlanta, Georgia, November 6. Thomas, G., & Smoot, G. (1994, February/March ). Critical thinking: A vital work skill. Thrust for Educational Leadership, 23, 34-38.
Definitions of Critical Thinking The definition of critical thinking has changed somewhat over the last decade: ...the ability to analyze facts, generate and organize ideas, defend opinions, make comparisons, draw inferences, evaluate arguments and solve problems (Chance,1986, p. 6) Chance, P. (1986). Thinking in the classroom: A survey of programs. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.
Definitions of Critical Thinking The definition of critical thinking has changed somewhat over the last decade: ...a way of reasoning that demands adequate support for one's beliefs and an unwillingness to be persuaded unless support is forthcoming (Tama, 1989, p. 64) Tama, C. (1989). Critical thinking has a place in every classroom. Journal of Reading, 33, 64-65.
Definitions of Critical Thinking The definition of critical thinking has changed somewhat over the last decade: ...a conscious and deliberate process which is used to interpret or evaluate information and experiences with a set of reflective attitudes and abilities that guide thoughtful beliefs and actions (Mertes,1991, p.24) Mertes, L. (1991). Thinking and writing. Middle School Journal, 22, 24-25.
Definitions of Critical Thinking The definition of critical thinking has changed somewhat over the last decade: ...the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action (Scriven & Paul, 1992) Scriven, M., & Paul, R. (1992, November). Critical thinking defined. Handout given at Critical Thinking Conference, Atlanta, GA.
Definitions of Critical Thinking The definition of critical thinking has changed somewhat over the last decade: reasonable reflective thinking focused on deciding what to believe or do (Ennis, 1992). Ennis, R. (1992). Critical thinking: What is it? Proceedings of the Forty-Eighth Annual Meeting of the Philosophy of Education Society Denver, Colorado, March 27-30.
Contributions to Critical Thinking A variety of groups have made a contribution to our understanding of critical thinking: • Cognitive psychology • Philosophy • Behavioral psychology • Content specialists
Comparing Bloom’s Taxonomy to Critical Thinking Bloom’s taxonomy of the cognitive domain: • Knowledge • Comprehension • Application • Analysis • Synthesis • Evaluation Bloom, B., Englehart, M., Furst, E., Hill, W., & Krathwohl, D. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. Handbook I: Cognitive Domain. New York: Longmans Green.
Synthesis Evaluation Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge Comparing Bloom’s Taxonomy to Critical Thinking Creative Thinking Critical Thinking
Comparing Bloom’s Taxonomy to Critical Thinking Huitt’s (1992) classification of problem-solving techniques: • Critical thinking--linear and serial, more structured, more rational and analytical, and more goal-oriented • Creative thinking--holistic and parallel, more emotional and intuitive, more creative, more visual, and more tactual/ kinesthetic Huitt, W. (1992). Problem solving and decision making: Consideration of individual differences using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Journal of Psychological Type, 24, 33-44.
Comparing Bloom’s Taxonomy to Critical Thinking Springer & Deutsch’s (1993) classification of brain-lateralization dominance: • Left brain thinking--analytic, serial, logical, objective • Right brain thinking--global, parallel, emotional, subjective Springer, S., & Deutsch, G. (1993). Left brain, right brain (4th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman and Co.
Problems With Prior Definitions All “good” thinking labeled as critical thinking Confuses attitudes and dispositions towards thinking with actual thinking process
Proposed Definition Ennis’ (1992) definition comes closest to useful generic definition Proposed definition aligns with Bloom’s level of evaluation Critical thinking is the disciplined mental activity of evaluating arguments or propositions and making judgments that can guide the development of beliefs and taking action.
Proposed Definition Critical thinking must be contrasted with non-critical thinking: • Habitual thinking • Brainstorming • Creative thinking • Prejudicial thinking • Emotive thinking
Critical Thinking Program A complete critical thinking program will deal with each of the components in the model: • Declarative knowledge • Procedural knowledge • Memory of images or visualizations • Attitudes • Process of critical thinking • Conation • Overt behavior and using feedback
Summary and Conclusions The following are important factors in discussion of critical thinking: • Recognize critical thinking is important attribute for success in the 21st century. • Carefully define the concept of "critical" thinking and delineate it from similar concepts • Identify expected behaviors and subtasks associated with critical thinking and develop operational definitions.
Summary and Conclusions The following are important factors in discussion of critical thinking: • Complete task analyses, define intermediate goals, and develop evaluation methods • Identify "best" methods of instruction for each aspect of the critical thinking process
Summary and Conclusions Critical thinking and its components are developed and used best when learned in connection with a specific domain of knowledge. Teachers and instructors at all levels must require students to use these skills in every class and evaluate their skills accordingly. Creative thinking and problem solving must also be taught.