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Mother and Child Health: Research Methods. G.J.Ebrahim Editor Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, Oxford University Press . Normality and Abnormality - I. In parameters with a Gausian distribution + 2 Standard Deviations or + 3 Standard Deviation may be arbitrarily considered abnormal.

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mother and child health research methods

Mother and Child Health: Research Methods

G.J.Ebrahim

Editor

Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, Oxford University Press.

normality and abnormality i
Normality and Abnormality - I
  • In parameters with a Gausian distribution
    • + 2 Standard Deviations
  • or
    • + 3 Standard Deviation
  • may be arbitrarily considered abnormal
normality and abnormality ii
Normality and Abnormality - II
  • Labeling as abnormal those findings which are regularly associated with disease e.g. blood pressure > 140 / 90 mm. Hg.
normality and abnormality iii
Normality and Abnormality - III
  • Calling a measurement abnormal if treatment is proven beneficial e.g. high blood cholesterol level
diagnostic tests
Diagnostic Tests
  • Sensitivity
  • Specificity
  • Positive and
  • Negative Predictive Values of tests
diagnostic tests ii
Diagnostic Tests - II
  • Do test results in patients differ from those in normal individuals?
  • Are patients with certain levels of results more likely to have the target disease?
  • Do test results distinguish patients with and without the disease among those clinically thought to have it?
  • Do patients undergoing the diagnostic test do better than similar untested patients?
meta analysis
Meta - Analysis
  • The process of making an objective and systematic analysis of information from all the randomised controlled trials
factors influencing practice of evidence based medicine
Factors Influencing Practice of Evidence – Based Medicine

Patient’s Clinical State

Research Evidence

Clinical Expertise

Clinical expertise

Patient’s

Preferences

screening tests
Screening Tests
  • Screening tests are different from diagnostic tests in being performed essentially on normal persons
  • Prevalence of the disorder being screened for is important since in low prevalence settings even excellent tests perform poorly.