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PBIS Implementation: Current Trends & Future Considerations

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  1. PBIS Implementation: Current Trends & Future Considerations George Sugai OSEP Center on PBIS Center for Behavioral Education & Research University of Connecticut Nov 8 2011 www.pbis.orgwww.scalingup.orgwww.cber.org

  2. PURPOSE Describe & link considerations from 15+ years of PBIS implementation to future directions “Overview of national trends in PBIS implementation as basis for action planning & future implementation in MN. Emphasis on PBIS framework, data-based decision making & outcomes, & implementation fidelity. Future considerations also are presented as basis for supporting & maximizing participation in conference sessions”

  3. www.pbis.org

  4. 9 Considerations

  5. 1. Invest in prevention for ALL

  6. Surgeon General’s Report on Youth Violence (2001) • Coordinated Social Emotional & Learning (Greenberg et al., 2003) • Center for Study & Prevention of Violence (2006) • White House Conference on School Violence (2006) VIOLENCE PREVENTION

  7. Biglan, 1995; Mayer, 1995; Walker et al., 1996

  8. 2. Teach behavior like academic skills, explicitly & deliberately

  9. DEFINE Simply ADJUST for Efficiency MONITOR & ACKNOWLEDGE Continuously MODEL PRACTICE In Setting 57 Teaching Academics & Behaviors

  10. 2. NATURAL CONTEXT 1. SOCIAL SKILL Expectations 3. BEHAVIOR EXAMPLES

  11. Bob Algozzine NC Positive Behavior Support Initiative Schools w/ Low ODRs & High Academic Outcomes Proportion of Students Meeting State Academic Standard Office Discipline Referrals per 100 Students PBIS in North Carolina

  12. Academic-Behavior Connection “Viewed as outcomes, achievement and behavior are related; viewed as causes of each other, achievement and behavior are unrelated. In this context, teaching behavior as relentlessly as we teach reading or other academic content is the ultimate act of prevention, promise, and power underlying PBS and other preventive interventions in America’s schools.” Algozzine, Wang, & Violette (2011), p. 16. Algozzine, B., Wang, C., & Violette, A. S. (2011). Reexamining the relationship between academic achievement and social behavior. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 13, 3-16. Burke, M. D., Hagan-Burke, S., & Sugai, G. (2003). The efficacy of function-based interventions for students with learning disabilities who exhibit escape-maintained problem behavior: Preliminary results from a single case study. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 26, 15-25. McIntosh, K., Chard, D. J., Boland, J. B., & Horner, R. H. (2006). Demonstration of combined efforts in school-wide academic and behavioral systems and incidence of reading and behavior challenges in early elementary grades. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 8, 146-154. McIntosh, K., Horner, R. H., Chard, D. J., Dickey, C. R., and Braun, D. H. (2008). Reading skills and function of problem behavior in typical school settings. Journal of Special Education, 42, 131-147. Nelson, J. R., Johnson, A., & Marchand-Martella, N. (1996). Effects of direct instruction, cooperative learning, and independent learning practices on the classroom behavior of students with behavioral disorders: A comparative analysis. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4, 53-62. Wang, C., & Algozzine, B. (2011). Rethinking the relationship between reading and behavior in early elementary school. Journal of Educational Research, 104, 100-109.

  13. 3. Emphasize PBIS as framework, not curriculum

  14. SWPBS (aka PBIS/RtI) is Framework

  15. Integrated Elements Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement OUTCOMES 15 Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior DATA SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior

  16. Team GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS: “Getting Started” Agreements Data-based Action Plan Evaluation Implementation

  17. SWPBS Implementation Blueprint www.pbis.org

  18. RtI

  19. 4. Invest in multi-tiered systems logic

  20. Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT FEW ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~15% SOME Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings 23 ALL ~80% of Students

  21. 23 Continuum of Support for ALL Few Some All Dec 7, 2007

  22. Continuum of Support for ALL “Theora” Math Science Spanish Reading Soc skills Soc Studies Basketball Label behavior…not people Dec 7, 2007

  23. Continuum of Support for ALL: “Molcom” Anger man. Prob Sol. Ind. play Adult rel. Self-assess Attend. Coop play Peer interac Label behavior…not people Dec 7, 2007

  24. Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • High Intensity • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • Intense, durable procedures • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Universal Interventions • All students • Preventive, proactive • Universal Interventions • All settings, all students • Preventive, proactive Responsiveness to Intervention Academic Systems Behavioral Systems 1-5% 1-5% 5-10% 5-10% 80-90% 80-90% Circa 1996

  25. 23 Behavior Continuum Academic Continuum RTI Integrated Continuum Mar 10 2010

  26. ESTABLISHING CONTINUUM of SWPBS • TERTIARY PREVENTION • Function-based support • Wraparound • Person-centered planning • TERTIARY PREVENTION ~5% ~15% • SECONDARY PREVENTION • Check in/out • Targeted social skills instruction • Peer-based supports • Social skills club • SECONDARY PREVENTION • PRIMARY PREVENTION • Teach SW expectations • Proactive SW discipline • Positive reinforcement • Effective instruction • Parent engagement • PRIMARY PREVENTION ~80% of Students

  27. 5. Invest in capacity for implementation fidelity

  28. Maximum Student Benefits Fixsen & Blase, 2009

  29. Start w/ What Works Focus on Fidelity Detrich, Keyworth, & States (2007). J. Evid.-based Prac. in Sch.

  30. Integrated Elements Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement OUTCOMES 15 Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior DATA SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior

  31. Basic “Logic” DATA SYSTEMS PRACTICES Implementation Fidelity Maximum Student Outcomes Training + Coaching + Evaluation

  32. Where are you in implementation process?Adapted from Fixsen & Blase, 2005

  33. 6. Support & engage leadership

  34. School leadership & contributing factors on student learning. Student/ Family Background School Conditions School Leadership Teachers Classroom Conditions Louis, Leithwood, Wahlstrom, & Anderson (2010).

  35. To receive positive ratings on previous, managers must do 4 things well: Buckingham & Coffman 2002, Gallup

  36. Effective leaders engage in actions or behaviors & establish working conditions that: Sugai, Horner, & Lewis, in press

  37. 7. Work smarter by doing a few effective things very well

  38. Working Smarter

  39. Sample Teaming Matrix Are outcomes measurable?

  40. 17 SWPBS Practices School-wide Classroom • Smallest # • Evidence-based • Biggest, durable effect Family Non-classroom Student & Family

  41. 18 School-wide • Leadership team • Behavior purpose statement • Set of positive expectations & behaviors • Procedures for teaching SW & classroom-wide expected behavior • Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior • Continuum of procedures for discouraging rule violations • Procedures for on-going data-based monitoring & evaluation

  42. RCT & Group Design PBIS Studies • Reduced major disciplinary infractions • Improvements in academic achievement • Enhanced perception of organizational health & safety • Improved school climate • Reductions in teacher reported bullying behavior & peer rejection Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C. W., Thornton, L. A., & Leaf, P. J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), 100-115 Bradshaw,C. P., Koth, C. W., Bevans, K. B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P. J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), 462-473. Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, 133-148. Bradshaw, C. P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K. B., & Leaf, P. J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, 1-26. Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, 133-145. Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), 1-14. Waasdorp, T. E., Bradshaw, C. P., & Leaf, P. J. (in press). The impact of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS) on bullying and peer rejection: A randomized controlled effectiveness trial.

  43. 8. Guide decisions with data

  44. Data Decision Making

  45. Data Assessment & Evaluation Tools ✔ ✔

  46. Gawande, A. (2009). The checklist manifesto. NY: MacMillan

  47. Non-Classroom Management: Self-Assessment