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C hapter 20. M anaging improvement – the TQM approach. Source: Corbis/Munshi Ahmed. Quality is free – the optimum is zero defects. Philip Crosby. Deming’s 14 points. W. Edwards Deming. How to use statistics. Total quality control. Armand Feigenbaum.

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C hapter 20

Chapter 20

Managing improvement – the TQM approach

Source: Corbis/Munshi Ahmed

C hapter 20

Quality is free –the optimum is zero defects

Philip Crosby

Deming’s 14 points

W. Edwards Deming

How to use statistics

Total quality control

Armand Feigenbaum

Quality circles and cause-and-effect diagrams

Kaoru Ishikawa

Quality as fitness for use, rather than conformance to specification

Joseph Juran

Loss function

Genichi Taguchi

Minimize variation

The quality gurus

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Makes quality central and strategic in the organization

  • Quality systems

  • Quality costing

  • Problem solving

  • Quality planning

Broadens the organizational responsibility for quality

  • Statistics

  • Process analysis

  • Quality standards

Solves the root cause of quality problems

Prevents ‘out of specification’ products and services reaching market

  • Error detection

  • Rectification

Total quality management can be viewed as a natural extension of earlier approaches to quality management

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Includes all parts of the organization

Includes all staff of the organization

Includes consideration of all costs

Includes every opportunity to get things right

Includes all the systems that affect quality

Never stops

Total Quality Management

Source: Corbis/Richard T Nowitz

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The cost of rectifying errors increases more rapidly the longer they remain uncorrected in the development and launch process



Cost of rectifying error





Pilot production

Market use



Stage in development and launch process

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Total cost of quality longer they remain uncorrected in the development and launch process


Internal failure



Increasing the effort spent on preventing errors occurringin the first place brings a more than equivalent reductionin other cost categories

Costs of quality


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Introduction longer they remain uncorrected in the development and launch process


Levelling off



Starting to hit the more difficult problems

Learning and understanding

Increasing enthusiasm

Attempts to revitalize the programme

Waning enthusiasm

The pattern of some TQM programmeswhich run out of enthusiasm

Effectiveness of the TQM initiative

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Changing Quality Assumptions longer they remain uncorrected in the development and launch process

Reactive Proactive

Inspection Prevention


Blame placing Problem solving

Quality cost more Quality cost less

Quality is technical Quality is managerial

Schedule first Quality first

Defects hidden Defects highlighted