Chapter 2: Introduction to Ethics. Chapter Overview. Introduction Review of eight ethical theories Comparing workable ethical theories Morality of breaking the law. Utilitarianism.
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the moral worth of an action is determined only by its resulting outcome
An action is right (or wrong) to the extent
that it increases (or decreases) the
total happiness of the affected parties.
judge the value of an action in terms of laws
believes that an action can be morally right if it conforms to the rules that lead to happiness.
Easier (practical) to deal with abstract rules
Can be generalized
“Morality consists in the set of rules,
governing how people are to
treat one another, that rational
people will agree to accept, for their
mutual benefit, on the condition that
others follow those rules as well.”
Each person has an equal right to the most extensive liberties compatible with similar liberties for all. (Egalitarian.)
Social and economic inequalities should be arranged so that they are both (a) to the greatest benefit of the least advantaged persons, and (b) attached to offices and positions open to all under conditions of equality of opportunity.