The types of letters • Letters of request • Letters giving information • Letters of advice • Letters making recommendations • Letters of complaint • Letters of apology • Letters of application • Letters of editor • Transactional letters
A successful letter should consist of: • An appropriate greeting • An introductory paragraph • A main body • A conclusion • An appropriate ending
Style in letters Formal Informal Semi-formal
Formal • Formal greetings and endings • Formal language i.e. complex sentences, frequent use of a passive and advanced vocabulary • No abbreviated forms
Informal • Informal greetings and endings • Informal language and style i.e. idioms, phrasal verbs, colloquial English and omission of pronouns • Abbreviated forms
Semi-formal • Formal greetings • Informal endings • A respectful tone, depending on the recipient of the letter. Also, pronouns should not be omitted and idioms should be carefully used
Key-phrasesOpening or beginning a personal letter • It was so good to get your last letter and have the new happenings in your life. • …sounds very interesting. • I’m sure you’ll enjoy… • I’m writing to apologize for… • I’m writing to tell you my wonderful news.
Key-phrasesEnding a personal letter • Well, that’s all for now. Write back and tell me what you’ve been up to. • I do hope to see you soon. • I’d better sign off now. • I think it’s time for me to stop and… • Can’t wait to hear from you.
Personal letters include: • Thank you • Invitation letters • Letters of regret • Congratulations
Tanya Ivanova 10 Kulisha Street Ternopil 46016 Ukraine Your name and address Silverton Tapes Inc. 403 Kipp Ave HasbrouckHB, NJ 07604 USA Receiver’s address
Tanya Ivanova 10 Kulisha Street Ternopil 46016 Ukraine Silverton Tapes Inc. 403 Kipp Ave Hasbrouck HB, NJ 07604 USA
Steps in writing letters Pre-writing activities Training writing activities Guided writing Free-writing activities
Pre-writing activities • Some people are crazy about writing personal letters. What kind of people do you think are letter fantastic? Give your reasons. • They say that personal letters can say much about their writers. In pairs, think and decide what can betray the personal character of a writer. Rank in the order of importance. • Read the following word-combinations and classify them into 3 groups: those which in your opinion, can be used at the beginning, at the ending of the letter, or its body. I thought I’d write and let you know that… I do lots of different things… I’ve dropped you a line to let you know how… Chicago is a really exciting city. Reply promptly. I’ d better end now because… There is so much to chose from: I’ll never forget my sightseeing tour. 5 4 3 2 1
Training – writing activities Sample letter July24, 2009 Dear Jean, It was so good to get your last letter and hear about the new happenings in your life. Your new job sounds very interesting and I’m sure you will enjoy working there. Things are very much the same here. We all miss you, but we understand that this new job will be a good career move for you. I have been busy with the newly organized PTA at the twins school. The first meeting was last Thursday evening and about 20 parents showed up. We got to meet the new teachers and than became acquainted with some of the other parents whose kids are in the same room with the twins. They are so excited that I’m able to help their teacher now that I have decided to be a stay-at-home mom. That translates into batches and batches of cookies. I’ll be turning out for school functions. Think it’s time for me to stop and prepare dinner. Write when you have time and keep us informed as to how you are getting along. Love, Alice. PTA – Parents-Teacher Association.
After reading the sample of personal letter, give the equivalents to the following: I was glad to receive your letter. Your new job seems to be interesting. I think you’ll like your new job. I think it’ll be important for your future career. About 20 parents were present. We got to know each other. I became a housewife. I’d better end now. 2. Read the sample letter and find the derivatives of the following words:
3. Read the words and word combinations used by travelers to describe their attitude to their holiday – making experiments. In the box below group them into positive and negative categories. Terrific! We had lots of fun. Wonderful, just wonderful! Tiresome! Magnificent! 4. Look at the pictures given below and write the body of a letter about summer rest.
Guided-writing activities 1. You have read a letter from Alice to Jean about her daily routine. Imagine that you are Jean. Write a letter to Alice about your summer holidays using the language tips and the communicative minimum suggested at the beginning of the unit. 2. Your friend is an experienced hiker and he invites you to join him in his hiking tour. You’ve decided in favor of the hike and want to let him knew about it. Write a letter to him using the language tips and communicative minimum suggested at the beginning of the unit.
Free-writing activities 1. Look at the set of pictures and write a letter about your friends experience of university life. 2. Listen to the fragments of songs in different languages and write a letter about your friend’s cruise around different countries. 3. You’re just back from your favorite band’s concert . You are bursting with impressions. Write a letter to your friend who is also a music fan to share your feelings. 4. Split into 2 groups. Take turns with your friends miming the events of the latest sports competition you participated in. The other group will write personal letters about the mimes presented.
Literature: • English Business Correspondence • Successful Writing • Калініна Л., Самойлюкевич І., “Getting America-wise: personal letters”. • Internet