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Energy in the Atmosphere. Electromagnetic Waves. Nearly all energy in Earth’s atmosphere comes from the sun. This energy travels through space in the form of electromagnetic waves. Radiation. Radiation is the direct transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves.

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Presentation Transcript
slide2
Electromagnetic Waves

Nearly all energy in Earth’s atmosphere comes from the sun. This energy travels through space in the form of electromagnetic waves.

slide3
Radiation

Radiation is the direct transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves.

Example: your body heats up when hit by electromagnetic waves, this is called radiation.

slide4

3- Types of electromagnetic rays:

  • Infrared Radiation
  • Ultraviolet radiation
  • Visible light
  • Intro to electro.
  • Electromagnetic Spectrum.
  • electromagnetic spectrum video nasa.
slide6
Infrared Radiation

Clip

Creates heat. It has the longest wavelength.

slide7
Ultraviolet

Electromagnetic waves

UV the Hidden Danger

electromagnetic waves UV

causes sunburns and eye damage (UV) and has the shortest wavelength.

This is the most dangerous type of radiation. Too much can cause skin cancer

Sunscreen helps protect us from this type of radiation.

Used to kill bacteria (sterilization of equipment)

slide8
Visible Light

electromagnetic waves that create color.

ROY G BIV

R= longest wavelength

V= shortest wavelength

Apples are red because they absorb every color but red. They reflect red so you see red.

White reflects all color. It absorbs nothing.

Black reflects no color. It absorbs it all.

apple light reflection video

Tour Visible Light

Visible Rays/Review

slide9
We see things because they reflect light into our eyes! This is literally the only way we get to see things! ALL objects we see either create light or reflect light!!

Homework

color
Color
  • White light is not a single color; it is made up of a mixture of the seven colors of the rainbow.

We can demonstrate this by splitting white light with a prism:

This is how rainbows are formed: sunlight is “split up” by raindrops.

the colors of the rainbow
The colors of the rainbow:
  • Red
  • Orange
  • Yellow
  • Green
  • Blue
  • Indigo
  • Violet

Just remember ROY G. BIV

seeing color

Homework

Seeing color

The color an object appears depends on the colors of light it reflects.

For example, a red book only reflects red light:

White

light

Only red light is reflected

slide13

A pair of purple trousers would reflect purple light (and red and blue, as purple is made up of red and blue):

Purple light

A white hat would reflect all seven colors:

White

light

slide15
Scattering

As these electromagnetic waves travel through the atmosphere to earth, some of them are reflected and some are absorbed by particles in the atmosphere.

Reflection of light in all directions is called scattering. This causes the sky to be blue. The particles in the air scatter the blue and violet wavelengths. So we see blue.

slide16
Greenhouse Effect

The greenhouse effect is caused by the reflection of light back and forth between Earth and the blanket of gases surrounding the Earth.

This is what keeps Earth at a comfortable temperature for all the living organisms on Earth. Without it we would freeze to death.

earth s temperature

Sun

Solar Energy

Solar Energy

Earth’s Temperature

The temperature of the earth is directly related to the energy input from the Sun. Some of the Sun’s energy is reflected by clouds. Other is reflected by ice. The remainder is absorbed by the earth.

earth s temperature1

Sun

Solar

Energy

Radiative

Cooling

Earth’s Temperature

If amount of solar energy absorbed by the earth is equal to the amount radiated back into space, the earth remains at a constant temperature.

earth s temperature2

Sun

Solar

Energy

Radiative

Cooling

Earth’s Temperature

However, if the amount of solar energy is greater than the amount radiated, then the earth heats up.

earth s temperature3

Sun

Solar

Energy

Radiative

Cooling

Earth’s Temperature

If the amount of solar energy is less than the amount radiated, then the earth cools down.

how global warming works

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

Fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas)

How Global Warming Works
slide25

To a certain degree, the earth acts like a greenhouse. Energy from the Sun penetrates the glass of a greenhouse and warms the air and objects within the greenhouse. The same glass slows the heat from escaping, resulting in much higher temperatures within the greenhouse than outside it.

slide26

Example of the Greenhouse Effect

The Sun’s energy passes through the car’s windshield.

This energy (heat) is trapped inside the car and cannot pass back through the windshield, causing the inside of the car to warm up.

earth s atmospheric gases

Nitrogen (N2)

Oxygen (O2)

Water (H2O)

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

Methane (CH4)

Earth’s Atmospheric Gases

Non-Greenhouse

Gases

99%

Greenhouse

Gases

1%

runaway greenhouse effect

Sun

Venus

Runaway Greenhouse Effect
  • 97% carbon dioxide
  • 3% nitrogen
  • Water & sulfuric acid clouds
  • Temperature:860°F
effects of global warming
Effects of Global Warming

Rising Sea Level

Increased Temperature

Habitat Damage and

Species Affected

Changes in Water Supply

colorado river
Colorado River
  • Arizona

2002

2003

wildlife effects
Wildlife Effects
  • Polar Bears
    • Require pack ice to live
    • Might eventually go extinct in the wild
  • Sea turtles
    • Breed on the same islands astheir birth
    • Could go extinct on some islandsas beaches are flooded
effect on humans
Effect on Humans
  • Fewer deaths from cold, more from heat
  • Decreased thermohaline circulation
    • Cooler temperatures in North Atlantic
  • Precipitation changes
      • Droughts and famine (some areas)
      • Expanded arable land in Canada, Soviet Union
drought in africa
Drought in Africa

Lake Faguibine

Lake Chad

burning of fossil fuels
Burning of Fossil Fuels

Pollution from coal, natural gas, and oil

Pollution from coal, natural gas, and oil

Pollution from coal, natural gas, and oil

slide42

Ice Core Data

CO2 Measurements Before 1958 - Antarctica

co 2 atmospheric measurements
CO2 Atmospheric Measurements

CO2 Measurements Since 1958 – Mauna Loa, Hawaii

1000 years of co 2 and global warming

CO2 Concentrations

Temperature (Northern Hemisphere)

1000 Years of CO2 and Global Warming

Degree Celsius Increase

Parts Per Million

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

Year

Year

carbon dioxide levels
Carbon Dioxide Levels

Muana Loa Readings

CO2 Levels Since 1958

370

350

CO2 (ppm)

330

310

40

30

20

10

0

420

370

320

CO2 (ppm)

270

220

Dome Concordia

Vostok Ice Core

170

600000

400000

200000

0

Time (YBP)

worldwide carbon emissions
Worldwide Carbon Emissions

Total

Liquid fuel

Solid fuel

Gas fuel

8

7

6

5

Carbon (109 metric tons)

4

3

2

1

0

1750

1800

1850

1900

1950

2000

Year

annual carbon emissions
Annual Carbon Emissions

Annual carbon emissions

Atmospheric CO2

Atmospheric CO2 average

8

6

Carbon (109 metric tons)

4

2

0

1955

1965

1975

1985

1995

2005

Year

recorded worldwide temperatures
Recorded Worldwide Temperatures

Decreasing

Flat

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

D Mean Temperature (°C)

0.0

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

1880

1900

1920

1940

1960

1980

2000

Year

historic los angeles temperatures
Historic Los Angeles Temperatures

Annual

Temperatures

Summer

Temperatures

Winter

Temperatures

25

17

22

21

24

16

20

23

15

19

22

14

Temperature (°C)

18

21

13

17

20

12

16

19

11

15

18

10

1880

1900

1920

1940

1960

1980

2000

1880

1900

1920

1940

1960

1980

2000

1880

1900

1920

1940

1960

1980

2000

Year

Year

Year

2007 temperature changes compared to 1951 1980
2007 Temperature Changes Compared to 1951-1980

-3

-2.5

-1.5

-1

-.5

-.1

.1

.5

1

1.5

2.5

3.4

slide52

Billions of Metric TonsCarbon

Goal: Reductions in

CO2 Per Year

2007

slide53

Our Goal

Billions of Metric TonsCarbon

Produce electricity efficiently

Use electricity efficiently

Vehicle efficiency

Solar and Wind Power

Biofuels

Carbon capture and storage

Gigaton Carbon

Reductions in CO2

Per Year

2007

what s being done now to reduce our emissions
What’s being done now to reduce our emissions?

Wind Power

Solar Power

Fuel-Efficiency

mitigation of global warming
Mitigation of Global Warming
  • Conservation
    • Reduce energy needs
    • Recycling
  • Alternate energy sources
    • Nuclear
    • Wind
    • Geothermal
    • Hydroelectric
    • Solar
    • Fusion?
simple things to do
Simple Things To Do
  • Turn off your computer or the TV when you’re not using it.
  • Take shorter showers. Heating water uses energy.
  • Keep rooms cool by closing the blinds, shades, or curtains.
  • Turn off the lights when you leave a room.
  • Use compact fluorescent bulbs.
be bulb smart use cfls

500 lbs. of coal

Be Bulb Smart—Use CFLs

What’s the difference?

Compact

Fluorescent

Incandescent

  • 1,430 lbs. CO2 pollution avoided
  • $30 saved
simple things to do1
Simple Things To Do
  • Dress lightly when it’s hot instead of turning up the air conditioning. Or use a fan.
  • Dress warmly when it’s cold instead of turning up the heat.
  • Offer to help your parents keep the air filters on your AC and furnace clean.
  • Walk short distances instead of asking for a

ride in the car

  • Plant a tree.
  • Recycle
slide60

Global Warming Carbon’s 1,2,3,4,5

  • Global Warming
  • Global Warming with Music