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AIRCRAFT WITHOUT ADF RECEIVER. B. Rabiller / DGAC /DCS Dublin, CNS/ATM Steering Group 21-22 June 2006. Overview. Why? Regulation Airborne installation and Ground infrastructure ECAC navigation strategy Proposed way to progress Roadmap Open issues Recommendation. WHY?.

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aircraft without adf receiver

AIRCRAFT WITHOUT ADF RECEIVER

B. Rabiller / DGAC /DCS

Dublin, CNS/ATM Steering Group

21-22 June 2006

overview
Overview
  • Why?
  • Regulation
  • Airborne installation and Ground infrastructure
  • ECAC navigation strategy
  • Proposed way to progress
  • Roadmap
  • Open issues
  • Recommendation

Aircraft without ADF

slide3
WHY?
  • Navaid ground infrastructure evolves
  • ECIP NAV 06 “Rationalization of navigation infrastructure”.
  • GNSS navigation possible in all phases of flight except cat II/III Precision Approaches
  • ADF is only an option for certain aircraft models (e.g. A 340-500/600)
  • ADF is not at all installed in certain Part 23 IFR aircraft (e.g. CIRRUS)
  • Some airlines already fly in European airspace without ADF receiver onboard

Aircraft without ADF

regulation commercial air transportation
REGULATIONCommercial air transportation
  • JAR OPS 1.865 (c).(1) permits to have aircraft without ADF if this system is not required in any phase of the flight planned
  • In addition JAR OPS 1.865 (c).(1) specifies that operation w/o ADF possible provided that a/c is equipped with alternative eqt authorised for the route being flown.
    • The reliability and accuracy of alternative eqt must allow safe navigation for the intended route.
  • ACJ 1.865: IFR operation w/o ADF
    • Only possible if ADF not essential for navigation provided alternative eqt provides equivalent or better performance.
    • Operational limitations:
      • Route segments not rely solely on ADF
      • ADF/NDB procedure are not flown
      • MEL is revisited
    • Flight crew training should include ADF non-installation in initial and recurrent training

Aircraft without ADF

regulation general aviation
REGULATIONGeneral Aviation
  • No specific requirement in ICAO Annex 6
  • For instance:
    • IFR French regulation requires:
      • An ADF or an equivalent system
      • All necessary eqt to respect published route, trajectories and procedures for the planned flight including alternate airport.
    • UK air navigation regulation–The Order and Regulation
      • Section 1 Schedule 5 “Radio-communication and radio-navigation equipment to be carried in aircraft” . An ADF receiver is required.
airborne installation and ground infrastructure
Airborne Installation and Ground Infrastructure
  • A/C are evolving in ATM environment not identical from one country to another one
    • Different NDB ground station density
    • NDB approaches designed as conventional or as overlay
    • Infrastructure on large and medium/small airport may be different
  • Is a single answer from an aircraft point of view possible?
    • A case by case assessment is necessary
      • May be acceptable for an airline operating on large airport
      • May be unacceptable for general aviation if NDB approaches exists and are not overlaid.
    • In US or Australia ADF is no more required but the airspace policy was developed in that sense (overlay approach, NDB de-commissioning,..)

Aircraft without ADF

ecac strategy policy for reducing ndb
ECAC StrategyPolicy for Reducing NDB
  • En-route NDBs to be removed from operation (review AIP for designation E/A)
  • Conventional SID/STAR/NPA based on NDB/DME:
    • Replace by VOR/DME
    • Remove/replace by RNAV SID/STAR after 2010 (where RNAV becomes mandatory)
    • Remove/replace by RNAV NPA or APV until 2015 where operationally beneficial and cost efficient
    • Retain one procedure per aerodrome/TMA until 2015 where operationally beneficial and cost efficient
  • Holding and MAPt
    • Replace by RNAV along with RNAV procedures
    • Retain one holding and/or MAPt fix per aerodrome until 2015 where operationally beneficial and cost efficient
  • Ref facilities for loss of Comms:
    • replace with RNAV fixes where RNAV becomes mandatory
    • Retain one per aerodrome until 2015 where operationally beneficial and cost efficient
  • NDBs not required for international operations should be withdrawn from route/aerodrome charges schemes.
proposed way to progress 1 3
Proposed way to progress (1/3)
  • To define the ADF equivalent system
    • Easy
    • IFR GNSS based system (stand-alone or integrated nav system) approved for the corresponding phase of flight (e.g. SID/STAR)
  • Is it possible to have aircraft w/o ADF for Enroute operation?
    • Yes
    • Less and less Enroute NDB
    • An approved IFR GNSS based system (e.g. BRNAV) is necessary
    • GNSS Prediction necessary (RAIM or FDE)

Aircraft without ADF

proposed way to progress 2 3
Proposed way to progress (2/3)
  • Is it possible to have aircraft w/o ADF for SID/STAR?
    • Possible if certain criteria are respected
    • From a procedure point of view, SID/STAR may be based on NDB:
      • NDB Fly over
      • NDB Holding
      • Define a Course
    • A SID/STAR approved IFR GNSS based system is necessary provided:
      • Whole procedure is stored in nav data base
      • Procedure is published in WGS 84
      • GNSS Prediction is checked (RAIM or FDE)
      • Nav data base integrity is demonstrated: LOA or manual verification

Aircraft without ADF

proposed way to progress 3 3
Proposed way to progress (3/3)
  • Is it possible to have aircraft w/o ADF for NDB approaches or approaches (e.g. ILS) with NDB missed approach?
    • Possible for NDB approaches only if procedure published as an overlay
      • Flyability checked
      • Obstacle protection verified
      • Coordinates published in WGS 84
      • An approved IFR GNSS based system for approach operation is necessary provided:
        • Whole procedure is stored in nav data base
        • GNSS Prediction is checked (RAIM or FDE)
        • Nav data base integrity is demonstrated: LOA or manual verification
        • A non based GNSS approach is available at the destination or at the alternate
    • Not possible if NDB approaches are not published as overlay
    • Not possible for approaches (e.g. ILS) with NDB missed approach.
      • Crew workload
      • Human factor
      • Procedure design

Aircraft without ADF

roadmap
ROADMAP
  • First Check your regulation (aircraft and airspace)
    • For commercial air transportation
    • For General aviation
  • Assess the navaid infrastructure:
    • NDB Density
    • Airport categories having NDB approaches (large, medium, small)
    • Characterise the backup navigation infrastructure (VOR,DME,ILS,..)
  • A/C without ADF possible for Enroute operation
    • With an approved GNSS based navigation system
  • A/C without ADF possible for Terminal operation
    • With an approved GNSS based navigation system (SID/STAR)
    • Procedure published in WGS 84
  • A/C without ADF for Approach operation:
    • Possible if the NDB procedure is published as an overlay
      • With an approved GNSS based navigation system
      • A non GNSS approach available at the destination or at the alternate
    • Not possible if the NDB procedure is not published as an overlay
    • Not possible for approaches (e.g. ILS) having a “missed” based on NDB
open issues
OPEN ISSUES
  • Is GNSS availability sufficient?
    • Is FDE necessary to improve GNSS availability?
  • Is navigation continuity sufficient?
    • Is a single GNSS system onboard sufficient?
    • VOR and DME must be still be fitted onboard
  • Role of NDB in supporting BRNAV and PRNAV as a reversionary capabilities
    • Need to check existing safety case
  • If ground NDB density is important:
    • Management of aircraft w/o ADF in IFR is an issue
    • May be acceptable for commercial air transportation whereas it could be unacceptable for general aviation

Aircraft without ADF

recommendation
Recommendation
  • Requires a close coordination with Eurocontrol and ANSPs
  • Aircraft without ADF is a reality and the problem should be addressed ASAP
  • JAA developed a policy some years ago for commercial air transportation (JAR OPS).
  • It is highly recommended to have a similar process for non public transport aircraft but answers could be different:
    • What is the more relevant process to address this issue ?
      • A European letter giving general guidelines for having an harmonized implementing process
      • Other proposal?

Aircraft without ADF