Fitness & Nutrition Chapter 7 – Nutrition for Life. Facts & Figures…. High School girls dissatisfied with their bodies? >60% College women dissatisfied with their bodies? >80% Percent of women who overestimate the size of their bodies? 50%
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Facts & Figures… • High School girls dissatisfied with their bodies? >60% • College women dissatisfied with their bodies? >80% • Percent of women who overestimate the size of their bodies? 50% • Percent of university women who are “terrified” of being overweight? 80% • Percent of university men who are “terrified” of being overweight? 20% • Prevalence of anorexia in college women? 5%-10% • Prevalence of bulimia in college women? 30% - 60% • Women who have eating disorders? 8-10 million • Men who have eating disorders? 1 million
What is Nutrition??? Nutrition: the science or study of foods and the ways in which the body uses food
Nutrition…a.k.a. “the study of nutrients” Nutrients: substances in food that provide energy and help the body function or grow and develop How many nutrients are there???
6 • Carbohydrates • Fats • Proteins • Vitamins • Minerals • Water
Carbohydrates A class of energy-giving nutrients that include sugars, starches, and fiber (aids in digestion and may help prevent cancer/heart disease). 2 Types of Carbohydrates - Complex Carbs - Simple Carbs
CARBOHYDRATES • Provide Energy • Converted to Glucose • Glycogen stores in liver and muscles • Excess stored as Fat
Simple Carbohydrates Also called “Simple Sugars” The body quickly breaks down simple carbohydrates to use as energy. Simple carbohydrates are found naturally in foods such as fruits, milk, and milk products. They also occur in processed and refined sugars such as candy, table sugar, syrups, and soft drinks.
Complex Carbohydrates Complex carbohydrates are made up of sugar molecules that are strung together in long, complex chains. They are found in foods such beans, whole grains, and vegetables. Both simple and complex carbohydrates are metabolized into glucose (blood sugar) in the body and are used as energy. Glucose is used in the cells of the body and in the brain. Any unused glucose is stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen for use later. The majority of your carbohydrate intake should come from complex carbohydrates (starches) and naturally occurring sugars, rather than processed or refined sugars, which do not have the vitamins, minerals, and fiber found in complex and natural carbohydrates. Refined sugars are often called "empty calories" because they have little to no nutritional value.
FATS A class of energy-giving nutrients that are also the main form of energy storage in the body. Also known as “Lipids”
Saturated Fats vs. Unsaturated Saturated Fats: -Found in animal products and processed foods (meats, dairy, chips, pastries) - Solid at room temperature - Can increase your risk of heart disease - Can increase your cholesterol Unsaturated Fats: - Found in foods such as nuts, avocados, and olives. - Unsaturated because they do not hold max number of hydrogen atoms - Liquid at room temperature - Can lower LDL cholesterol (“bad cholesterol”) and raise HDL cholesterol (“good cholesterol”)
FATS cont. Why do you need fats? - good source of energy - cushions body’s organs - helps keep body temperature stable - forms coating on nerves and cell membranes - add to flavor, texture, and aroma - helps you feel full after you have eaten
CHOLESTEROL • Type of lipid that circulates in blood • Needed to make bile (substance that aids in fat digestion) High Density Lipoprotein(HDL) : - “good cholesterol” or “Heroes” - Carries LDL to be metabolized Low Density Lipoprotein(LDL): - “bad cholesterol” plaque forms on walls of the blood vessels and blocks blood flow to the heart
PROTEINS Proteins: A class of nutrients made up of amino acids, which are needed to build and repair body structures
Proteins Cont. • Your hair, skin, muscles and finger nails are all made up of mostly PROTEIN. • Proteins help build new cells and repair existing ones. Protein is also needed to form hormones, enzymes, and antibodies • Found in fish, red meats, beans, nuts • Made up of AMINO ACIDS…Essential Amino Acids: (9/20) Myth: Eating extra protein is important if you want to build bigger muscles Fact: Muscles grow in response to strength training, not to an increase in protein intake
Vegetarianism • A vegetarian is a person who does not eat meat. • Diet consists of only fruits, veggies, and grains • A lacto-vegetarian eats milk products but not meat • Vegetarians tend to be healthier • They must be careful and be sure to include all their nutrients
What is considered a healthy balance?? 50-60% Carbohydrates 30-40% Proteins 10-15% Fats
VITAMINS/MINERALS/WATER The biggest difference between these 3 nutrients and carbs/proteins/fats is that they are absorbed into the body…they are not metabolized. Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Vitamins Minerals Water
VITAMINS Vitamins: Class of nutrients that contain carbon and are needed to help maintain health, allow growth; also regulate many vital body processes Classified by whether or not they dissolve in fat. Fat-Soluble: They dissolve in fat and most can be stored in fat tissue and remain in the body for a long time. Water-Soluble: Not stored in the body for a very long time; do not provide energy, but are needed in order for the body to release energy from carbohydrates, fats, proteins
Minerals Minerals:Inorganic substances that the body cannot manufacture, but act as catalysts, regulating many vital body processes:
What’s the hype about milk? Milk contains 9 essential nutrients, including calcium, vitamins A, D and B12, protein, potassium, riboflavin, niacin and phosphorus. This powerful package of nutrients does more than just build strong bones.
Nutrient Deficiency Nutrient Deficiency: the state of not having enough of a nutrient to maintain good health
WATER • Recommended 8 Glasses of Water Per Day!!!! • About 80-90% of fruits are made of water. • Regulates body functions • Joint health • Regulates Body Temperature • Carries Nutrients • Waste Removal
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) – recommended nutrient intakes that will meet the needs of almost all healthy people Dietary Guidelines for Americans – Set of recommendations designed to improve the diets and health of Americans; coordinate information from several sets of recommendations
Food Pyramid Guide Average Calorie needs are around 2,000 per day. For a 2,000-Calorie diet see the amount of food for each food group below: 6 oz 2.5cups 2 cups 3 cups 5.5 oz **Specific recommendations for daily food amounts are based on a person’s age, sex, and activity level – one size DOES NOT fit all
Reading Food Labels “Serving Size” – amount of food that counts as one serving “Calories” – number of calories in one serving and from fat “% Daily Value” – percentage of recommended amount of the nutrient that is met by one serving
1.) What is the serving size? 2.) What is the % Daily Value of Vitamin C in this food? 3.) What percentage of Calories comes from fat?
1.) What is the serving size? 1 Cup 2.) What is the % Daily Value of Vitamin C in this food? 24% 3.) What percentage of Calories comes from fat? 4 Calories / 84 Calories x 100 = 21% **Page 169
What is nutrient density?Measure of the nutrients in a food compared with the energy the food providesHealthful Snacks – nutrient-dense food choice (i.e. an apple or yogurt)
“I’m all jacked up on Mt. Dew!” Junk food – provides few nutrients relative to the energy it contains (low-nutrient density)
Athletic Nutrition • Need extra energy and water (higher caloric intake) • Need a diet high in carbs which provide energy • Increased protein needs to repair muscle tissue • Female athletes should be extra careful to get enough iron in their diets as iron is lost each month during menstruation • Must plan meals around their workouts to avoid cramping and nausea • Need to drink a sports drink after activity lasting longer than 60 min.
SPECIAL DIETARY NEEDS True or False Athletes, people who are ill, and infants do not have different nutrient, fluid, and energy needs than most other people.
FALSE Athletes require extra energy, water, and have different nutrient needs. Infants have a liquid diet of nutrients, Calories, and substances that help protect them from infections. Infants, children, and teenagers need more food energy per pound of body weight than adults. When you are sick, it is important to drink lots of fluids in order to stay hydrated. Friedman, David P., Curtis C. Stine, and Shannon Whalen. Lifetime Health. Orlando, [Fla.: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2009. Print.
Fitness & NutritionChapter 8 – Weight Management and Eating Behavior
QUICK REVIEW • What can you do to increase your calcium intake? • Are healthful snacks low-nutrient or high-nutrient density foods? • What vitamins are needed to produce energy from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins? • How are health and diet related?
QUICK REVIEW • What can you do to increase your calcium intake? • Eat more dark-green leafy vegetables, bony fish, milk, dairy, tofu • Are healthful snacks low-nutrient or high-nutrient density foods? • High-nutrient density foods • What vitamins are needed to produce energy from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins? • B vitamins • How are health and diet related? • Diet affects health by affecting the risk of developing heart disease and other ailments
FOOD CULTURE What would you say our “Food Culture” is like in America? How would you describe some of the trends…especially in teens? What effects our food decisions? Family & Friends Advertising Moods & Emotions Time & Money
HUNGER The body’s physical response to the need for food. APPETITE A desire, rather than a need, to eat certain types of food. *Turn to page 190 and independently read the “Are You Really Hungry?” section.
Body Composition Compares an individuals fat mass % to their bone and lean mass % An individual who weighs 140 lbs. with 10% body fat…. 140 x 10% = 14 lbs. of fat http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6rCOi-RSAsc&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C5MLKSHsLxM&feature=related
Body Fat Composition • Most accurate way to test body fat is by hydrostatic weighing • Muscles weighs more than fat • Women tend to have higher body fat than men **FILL OUT BOX IN NOTES PACKET
Body Mass Index (BMI)index of weight in relation to height that is used to assess healthy body weight
OVERWEIGHT Being heavy for one’s height OBESITY Weighing 20% more than one’s recommended weight; excess body fat or adipose tissue that can cause a higher risk of health problems More Americans are becoming overweight and obese because of lack of physical activity, easy access to food, foods high in fat, and large portions.
A Balanced Diet Keeps You Healthy!! Eating too little food can cause weight loss, poor growth, and if severe enough death. Eating too much can cause illnesses. When too much fat, carbohydrates, and protein are taken into the body, the extra energy is stored as fat. Excess body fat increases the risks of heart disease, high blood pressure, and other chronic diseases.
What is a CALORIE? http://www.nutritiondata.com/help/glossary Calorie: Calorie is a unit of measurement for energy. One calorie is formally defined as the amount of energy required to raise one cubic centimeter of water by one degree Centigrade. Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR): rate at which the body uses energy when it is at rest
THE BIG PICTURE:The Energy Equation Calories consumed = calories burned (maintain weight)
The Energy Equation Calories in greater than calories burned = Weight gain
The Energy Equation Calories consumed less than calories burned = weight loss