China Zhong guo/ Jung Kuo Middle Kingdom - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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China Zhong guo/ Jung Kuo Middle Kingdom

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  1. 中國 China Zhong guo/ Jung Kuo Middle Kingdom

  2. Middle Kingdom Center of the Known Universe Economic Center Geographic Center Cultural Center Scientific Center Political Center

  3. Demography Population: 1,319,175,332 Estimate Jan. 2007 Religion / Philosophy: Secular Communism Confucianism Buddhism Daoism Islam Christianity

  4. Great Wall Civil Service Bureaucracy Political theory and practice Theories of War and Peace Early Written Language Rich Literature Philosophy / Religion Daoism Buddhism Science and Technology Bronze Steele Printing Fireworks Rice Agriculture Noodles ETC….. Major Historical Achievements

  5. Language Pictographs Idiographs Monosyllabic Written: • Concise • Universal Spoken: • Prolix • Tonal • Dialects

  6. Chronological History History VS Archeology Shang Dynasty: 1523-1027 BC (BCE) Writing system (1300 BC) Oracle bones Centralized government

  7. Zhou Dynasty 1027-221 BC Early Zhou: 1027-771 BC Overthrow of the Shang What to do with the Shang Nobility??? -- the answer depends on culture…

  8. Early Zhou:Mandate of Heaven 天命(Tienming) Tien rules fates of dynasties Tien willed fall of Shang Tien willed success of Zhou Floods, famines, natural disasters, and political upheaval demonstrate Tien’s displeasure Justify revolt and revolution

  9. Ancient Chinese Concept of the Human Soul Po: Animal Soul (physical body) Dies, returns to earth Should be respected Hun: Spiritual Soul (spirit) Lives on in the location of its life Happy guardian spirit Unhappy malicious ghost Fate depends on memory and care by descendents

  10. Ancient Chinese Concept of the Human Soul Consequences: Reverence for ancestors Ceremonies Ancestor Veneration (worship?) Elaborate genealogical records Gentry tied to land

  11. Ancient Chinese Concept of the Human Soul Consequences continued: Little emigration Little voluntary migration Need to produce a son Tempers genocide after revolution Zhou do not destroy Shang nobility so they won’t be haunted by their ancestors

  12. Social Science and Religion Rules for social science analysis of religion: • Suspend judgment • Try to understand what others believe • Try to see HOW those beliefs motivate behaviors • Don’t ask if it is ‘true’ or ‘logical.’ Social science can’t assess that. • Avoid judgmental language: primitive, superstitious, stupid … • Understanding others’ beliefs need not threaten your own.

  13. Ancient Chinese Religious Beliefs and Practices Animism: All objects have spirits Spirits have human characteristics From Pocahontas: “But I know every rock and tree and creature has a life, has a spirit, has a name.”

  14. Ancient Chinese Religious Beliefs and Practices Shamanism: Animistic religion with a special mediator or Shaman to help make peace between the human world and the spirit world. Medicine man Mystic Witch doctor Xi Wang Mu: Queen Mother of the West

  15. Early Zhou Tien as Patron Diety Mandate of Heaven as Justification No Priestly Class • King intermediates between gods (esp. Tien) and human world • If the gods are unhappy, it is the king’s fault

  16. Transition to Later Zhou(Eastern Zhou) 771-221 BC Decay and corruption at the center King’s Favorite loved the Signal Fires The King who cried wolf 771 BC: transfer capital east to Luoyang

  17. Later Zhou • Political Structure loosened • Provinces have great autonomy • Central Government weaker • More flexibility for • Innovation • Creativity • New philosophy

  18. Later Zhou and Philosophy • Confucianism • Kung Fu Zi (Confucius) 551-479 BC • Taoism (Daoism) • Laozi (Lao Tzu) 500s BC • Art of War • Sunzi (Sun Tsu) • Philosophy of Love and Brotherhood • Mozi (Mo Tzu) 470-391 BC • Legalism, 300s BC • Han Fei Zi, 200s BC Mozi Han Fei Zu

  19. Philosophical Advances Elsewhere • Buddha 566- 480 BC • Enters China @ meridian • Plato 427-347 BC • Socrates 469-399 BC • Isaiah 700s BC • Jeremiah 600s BC

  20. Confucianism • Confucius: a real, historical person • Minor Official and Scholar in Lu • Left no personal Record • Known mostly through the Analects • Set out to outline a system for: • Good government • Good family life • Social Harmony

  21. Confucianism • Religion or Philosophy? • God?? • NatureIS the divine • After life? • Probably, but not a focus. Order this life well and the next will care for itself • What is a Good life? • To live in harmony with true nature • Requires that we understand true human nature

  22. Confucian Virtues(Note: a bit different from your notes) • Ren: Humanity • Li: Propriety, ritual decorum • Yi: Uprightness, integrity • Zhi: Knowledge • Xin: Honesty • Zhong: Loyalty, constancy • Xiao: Filial Piety (especially later, neo-Confucianism – having to do with family) • Missing Virtue? Courage, Valor, Bravery

  23. Confucianism: • Five Relationships • King -- minister • Father -- son • Husband -- wife • Older brother -- younger brother • Friend -- friend

  24. Confucian Classic Literature • FIVE CLASSICS • Book of Changes: Yi Jing (Daoism) • Book of History: Shu Jing (Documents) • Book of Odes/Songs: Shi Jing • Book of Ritual: Li Ji • Spring and Autumn Annals: Chunqui • FOUR BOOKS • Great Learning: Da Xue • Mean : Jung Yung (moderation) • Analects: Confucian Sayings • Mencius

  25. Confucianism Major Goal: Social and political harmony achieved through: • Knowledge • Correct exercise of the major virtues • Correct application of the 5 relationships • Proper organization of government both in the kingdom and the family Core Assumption: • People can learn to behave well

  26. Daoism • Laozi (Lao Tzu) 500s BC • Legendary, possibly mythilogical • Monk, author of core text • Generally depicted riding an ox • Dao De Jing: core Daoist text • The Way or the Way of Virtue • Nature is the ultimate • Harmony with nature is the highest virtue • Nature is conceived differently from Confucianism

  27. Daoism • Human goal is harmony with nature • Meditation is key • Principle of ‘inaction’ can enlighten the soul • Seek for ‘emptiness’ • Emphasizes harmony • Self discipline • Ties to martial arts and physical self-mastery

  28. Daoism • Yin and Yang • Symbol of natural duality • All things have a dual nature Male-Female Light-Dark Good-Evil Heaven-Earth Hot-Cold Birth-Death • Nothing is complete without its opposite • Balance of the duality is the goal

  29. Fengshui • Geomancy • Wind and Water • Nature has its own energy flow which affects our environment • Human lives and structures find harmony and increased success if arranged to compliment the natural flow of energy

  30. Mozi (Mo Tzu) 470-391 BC • Philosophy of Love and Brotherhood • Love your neighbor • Seek reconciliation as top priority • Forgive his errors • Peace and mutual respect are paramount • War is simply brigandage on a large scale

  31. Sun Tsu Sunzi 5th century BC The Art of War • Book of military strategy and philosophy • Know your enemy, watch him and let him show you his weakness • Still in common use today in military colleges

  32. Legalism (300s BC) Governing philosophy (similar to Machiavelli in Europe) Emphasized rule of law Laws must be strict and violations severely punished No individual rights Morality less important than stable power King/emperor’s power to be maintained with violence Strong totalitarian tendency Most famous proponent: Han Fei Zi (about233 BC) Adopted by the Chin Dynasty (221-206 BC)

  33. Buddhism • Gautama Siddhartha • 500 BC in India • A prince of Warrior Caste • Miraculous birth (pictured) • Spoiled, pampered, indulged • At 29, on excursion sees: sick man, lame man, decaying corpse, and ascetic monk • Depressed by realization that suffering is inevitable and tries to discover a solution through ascetic life (self-deprivation, self-mortification) • Nearly dies from excessive fasting, etc.

  34. Buddhism • Abandons ascetic life and pursues instead the “Middle Way” • Middle way is the balance between self-indulgence and self-mortification • Path of ‘moderation’ • Sitting under a bodhi tree is struck with enlightenment

  35. Buddhism: Four Noble Truths • To exist is to suffer • Desire or craving is the cause of suffering • To end suffering, one must extinguish desire 4. Desire can be extinguished through the 8-fold path to enlightenment

  36. Buddhism: 8-Fold Path • Right Views • Right intention • Right speech • Right action • Right livelihood • Right effort • Right mindfulness • Right concentration

  37. Buddhism: Nirvana • Through enlightenment one can end desire and suffering • Supreme liberation is called Nirvana • Nirvana is the ending of desire and thereby the end of suffering • Sometimes described as the state of not existing • Nirvana is generally NOT considered a place like ‘heaven,’ rather it is a state of enlightenment or non-existence

  38. Buddhism: core practices • A correct life for Buddhists involves • Meditation • Kindness and love to others • Bodhisattva vow – to patiently assist others to find peace and enlightenment, no matter how difficult • Avoiding injury to others – human or animal • Vegetarianism – some sects • Avoiding alcohol – some sects • Celibacy for monks – some sects

  39. Buddhism: cannon scripture Tripitaka (3 baskets) • Sutras • sermons attributed to Buddha and recorded by followers • Sastras • later treatises by later monks and enlightened ones • Vinyas • monastic rules

  40. Buddhism: great division • Therevada: (Hinayana) common in Southeast Asia: Thailand, etc. • More contemplative • Work out your own enlightenment through meditation. • There is no help, you’re on your own

  41. Buddhism: great division • Mahayana: Common in China, Japan, Korea. • Bodhisattvas: • Enlightened souls who choose to stay and help out others • In ways parallel to Saints in Catholicism • Bodhisattvas can intervene and achieve miraculous things • Mahayana followers need less meditation because they get more help from bodhisattvas • Bodhisattvas have favorite causes – like saints • Some even oversee heaven-like places, the ‘Western Paradise”

  42. Later Zhou’s demise • Disorder or loose government of Later Zhou devolves into “Warring States Period” • Autonomous smaller regions emerge as largely independent nations • Periodic war ensues • One among the several emerges to establish a new, far more centralized dynasty • Chin Dynasty emerges as the first Chinese “Empire” 221 BC