AUTISM. What it is, is not, and how we treat it effectively Marisa R. Leyden, M.A., BCBA. Autism: Facts. At present, 1 in 88 children in the United States are diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. This number is similar throughout the world.
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What it is, is not, and how we treat it effectively
Marisa R. Leyden, M.A., BCBA
(DSM – IV – TR, 2000)
- Autism (aka; classic autism, early infantile autism,
childhood autism, etc.)
- Asperger’s Disorder
- Pervasive Developmental Disorder – Not Otherwise Specified (PDD – NOS)
- Rett’s Disorder
- Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
- Impairment in social interaction
- Impairment in communication
- Restricted, repetitive, stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests and activities
- Antecedent Package
- Behavioral Package
- Comprehensive Behavioral Treatment for Young Children
- Joint Attention Intervention
- Naturalistic Teaching Strategies
- Peer Training Package
- Pivotal Response Treatment
-Story-based Intervention Package
- Use of positive reinforcement (R+)
- Individualized instruction
-Data based decision making
The Theory of Verbal Behavior
- Mand – asking for reinforcers i.e., Asking for “water” when you are thirsty.
- Tact – Naming or identifying objects, actions, events, etc. i.e., Saying “water” because you see it.
- Echoic – Repeating what is heard i.e., Saying “water” after someone else says “water”.
- Intraverbal – Answering questions or having conversations where your words are controlled by other words i.e., Saying “Patten school” after someone says “Where do you work?”
- Those individuals with language may have an extensive list of tacts (labels) but no ability to ask for what they want.
- For those individuals who develop a mand repertoire, they may only be able to ask for desired items/activities when they are present.
- For many who have no communicative behaviors, the only “mand” they have is to engage in maladaptive behaviors.
-Activities/Termination of an Activity
-Changes in the Environment
- Observe their behavior in the natural environment to determine what items/activities they like best and/or do a formal preference assessment
- Assess the individuals best modality for communication
- Capture and contrive motivation
- Provide reinforcement immediately following the desired behavior and on an appropriate schedule
- Set up the environment for learning
- Practice in a variety of settings and situations to promote generalization