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Characteristics of Good Leadership

Characteristics of Good Leadership

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Characteristics of Good Leadership

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  1. Characteristics of Good Leadership

  2. What influences leadership effectiveness? • Nature • Nurture • Situational factor

  3. Studies of Leadership • Nature: Until the late 40s the belief was that leaders were born not made and had particular traits: intelligence, extraversion, etc. • Nurture: From the late 40s until the late 60s the central belief was that it was how leaders behave that mattered. It was a question of style. As such it could be learnt.

  4. Studies of leadership • Situational Factors: From the late 60s until the early 80s the idea was that leadership depended on the situation in which leaders found themselves. Some would be good for some circumstances but not for others. • Visionary Leadership: Since the early 80s the central idea is that leaders need vision and charisma and that leading and managing are different.

  5. The nature argument Leadership Effectiveness And Success Trait

  6. The Nurture Argument Abilities & Behaviors Leadership Effectiveness And Success Trait

  7. The Situational Argument Situation Abilities & Behaviors Leadership Effectiveness And Success Trait

  8. 1 The Trait Perspective

  9. The “Great Man” Approach • Emphasis on the leader & personality • His/her characteristics • The leader is somehow “above” the led • Smarter • Nicer • Bigger • Better

  10. Capacity Intelligence Alertness Verbal facility Originality Judgement Achievement Scholarship Knowledge Athletic accomplishments Stogdill - 1948 Research Factors Affecting Leadership

  11. Responsibility Dependability Initiative Persistance Aggressiveness Self-confidence Desire to excell Participation Activity Sociability Cooperation Adaptability Humor Stogdill - continued

  12. Status Socioeconomic position Popularity Situation Task to be accomplished Followers to be led Stogdill - continued

  13. JOHARI’s Window • Construct of Joe Luft and Harry Ingham • Relates self-perception to the perception of others • Things we know about ourselves • Things others know about us

  14. The Johari Window Known to Self Unknown to Self Known to Others The Arena Blind Private Unknown Unknown to Others

  15. The trait perspective • Major traits in leaders are: intelligence, dominance, self-confidence, high energy level, and task relevant knowledge (Stodgill 1970). • Traits are best thought of as predispositions not causes • Multiple traits can be associated with a given behavior, and more than one behavior can be linked to an individual trait • It is behavior and not traits per se that is most closely related to leadership effectiveness

  16. 2 The Behavioral Perspective

  17. The behavioral perspective • Kurt Lewin’s model • Ohio studies • Michigan studies • Managerial Grid • Bipolar model

  18. Kurt Lewin • Kurt Lewin(1930): three type of leadership • Autocratic Leadership (direction) • Democratic Leadership (facilitation) • Laissez-faire Leadership Dr. Shahram Yazdani

  19. Leadership Behavior Continuum Manager centered Follower centered Use of authority by Manager Freedom for subordinates Tell Sell Tell & Ask Ask & Tell Participate Delegate Dr. Shahram Yazdani

  20. 3 Situational Leadership

  21. Path-Goal Model Evans - 1970 & House & Dressler -1974 Leader Behavior (style) Subordinate Characteristics Work Environment Characteristics Subordinate Perceptions Expectancy Instrumentality Valence Effort Performance Reward Motivation Dr. Shahram Yazdani

  22. Path Goal Model • Expectancy is the relation between effort and performance • Instrumentalityis the degree to which a person perceives that performance will lead to reward • Valence is the strength of a person’s preference for different types of reward

  23. Path Goal Model • According to expectancy theory a person will be highly motivated when effort results in performance (high expectancy) and when performance leads to rewards (high instrumentality) that are valued (high valence)

  24. Implications of Path Goal Model • The path between effort, performance, and reward is difficult. The leader must do everything possible to turn what is often a cow pathinto a well designed, high-speed freeway • Individuals’ valences are heterogenous

  25. Implications of Path Goal Model • The contingency most under a manager’s control is his own leadership style: • Instrumental behavior (defining objectives and specifying the task to be performed) • Participatory behavior (seeking follower input on decisions that affect them • Achievement-oriented behavior (establishing goals and setting expectations that challenge followers)

  26. Factors affecting effectiveness of leadership • Characteristics of the manager: • Traits / dispositions • Skills • Values • Characteristics of followers: • Skills • Knowledge • Experience • Responsibility • Understanding of goals and tasks • Characteristics of situation: • Time availability • Nature of problem

  27. Thank You ! Any Question ?