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C Red. Carbon Reduction. Low Carbon Workshop. Keith Tovey ( 杜伟贤) MA, PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv Н.К.Тови М.А д-р технических наук Energy Science Director HSBC Director of Low Carbon Innovation. What we can all do to save the planet from the consequences of Global Warming.

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slide1
CRed

Carbon Reduction

Low Carbon Workshop

Keith Tovey (杜伟贤)

MA, PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv

Н.К.Тови М.Ад-р технических наук

Energy Science Director

HSBC Director of Low Carbon Innovation

What we can all do to save the planet from the consequences of Global Warming

time is getting short to save the planet
Time is getting short to save the planet

18th November 2007

  • IPCC climate report of 2500 Scientists – November 2007.
  • World is dying, but can we unite to save it?
  • Pollution in the seas from burning fossil fuels is now speeding global warming
      • increases in droughts,
      • heatwaves
      • floods
      • famine
      • poor and elderly will suffer most
  • Can we all agree what to do by 2010?
slide4
Change in precipitation 1961-2001

Source: Tim Osborne, CRU

Total summer precipitation

Total winter precipitation

slide6
Increasing Occurrence of Flood

Source: Tim Osborne, CRU

climate change arctic meltdown 1979 2003
2003

1979

Climate Change: Arctic meltdown 1979 - 2003

تغير المناخاثار على الجليديه القطبيه كاب 1979 - 2003

  • Summer ice coverage of Arctic Polar Region
  • NASA satellite imagery
  • الصيف الجليد في القطبالشمالي تغطية المنطقة القطبيه
  • ناسا الصور الفضاءيه
  • 20% reduction in 24 years
  • 20 ٪تخفيض في 24 سنوات

Source: Nasa http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/topstory/2003/1023esuice.html

what causes the emissions of carbon dioxide
What causes the emissions of carbon dioxide?
  • What is the magnitude of the problem?
  • What can we all do about it?
what is the magnitude of the problem
What is the magnitude of the problem

Each person in Libya causes emission of 7.58 tonnes of CO2 each year.

What volume does that occupy?

4.25 hot air balloons

How does Libya compare with other countries?

Why do some countries emit more CO2 than others?

slide11
The magnitude of the problem

1 hot air balloon = 1.8 tonnes

Each person in Libya emits equivalent of 4.25 balloons

1 party balloon = 10 gms

1 big balloon = 900 000 party balloons

how to reduce causes of global warming
How to reduce causes of Global Warming
  • Reduce energy use.
    • How?
    • Switch off unnecessary appliances
    • Change how we do things - change the setting on the thermostat
  • Improve efficiency of Energy Use
    • Insulate buildings to keep them warm in winter and cool in summer.
  • Technical improvements in equipment
    • More efficient refrigerators, cars etc.
  • Use Renewable Energy rather than fossil fuels to generate electricity.
  • Offset residual emissions
electricity generation in libya
Electricity Generation in Libya

For each unit of electricity used.

Heat Lost from power station

4.24 kWh

Lost from wires

0.47 kWh

Oil

4.73 kWh

Electricity actually used

1.0 kWh

Electricity

1.67 kWh

Power Station

28% efficient in Libya

Used for extracting oil and gas

0.20 kWh

GAS

1.19 kWh

Each unit of electricity used causes the emission of 1532 gms of CO2

In UK 520 gms, France 70 grams China 850 gms

18.47 million tonnes of CO2 are emitted in the generation of Electricity

Data from IEA Balance Tables for Libya.

electricity generation in libya and uk
Electricity Generation in Libya and UK

Losses 28%

Power Station

Oil 80%

Gas 20%

Emissions depends on efficiency, losses and fuel

28% efficient in Libya

Coal 1000 – 1300 gms

Oil 900 - 1100

Gas 400 – 600 gms

Coal 37.7%

Gas 35.5%

Oil 1.3%

Other 2.0%

Renewable 4.7%

Nuclear 18.9%

Power Station

Losses 8.5%

42% efficient in UK

Each unit of electricity used causes the emission of 1532 gms of CO2 in Libya and520 gms in UK.

slide16
Solar Energy - The BroadSol Project

Solar Collectors installed 27th January 2004

Annual Solar Gain 910 kWh

slide17
Options for Renewable Electricity Generation
  • On shore wind
  • 1.5 MW machine will provide energy for 1000 homes in UK
  • Possibly 3000 homes in Libya
  • New machines are twice as big

66 m

66 m

slide18
Options for Renewable Electricity Generation

Off shore wind

Has 30 turbines and can provide sufficient electricity for 35 000 houses in UK

slide19
Solar Electricity

It is still quite expensive

hydroelectricity
Hydroelectricity

Some countries have a high proportion of hydro electricity -

Norway ~ 99%

UK ~ 2%

slide22
Short rotation coppice (SCR) - Willow

ENERGY CROPS

Miscanthus

  • But Land Area required is very large - 10000 sq km would be needed to generated just 5% of UK electricity needs.
  • What % of area of UK would be needed just for electricity?

90%

slide23
Options for Renewable Electricity Generation - Biomass
  • Transport Fuels:
  • Biodiesel?
  • Bioethanol?
  • Compressed gas from
  • methane from waste.
slide28
Solar Energy - The BroadSol Project

Solar Collectors installed 27th January 2004

Annual Solar Gain 910 kWh

performance of a solar thermal system
Performance of a Solar Thermal System

Data collect 9th December 2006 – 30th October 2007

slide30
Raising Awareness

At Gao’an No 1 Primary School in Xuhui District, Shanghai

  • In UK a tumble dryer uses 4 times as much energy as a washing machine. Using it 5 times a week will cost over £100 a year just for this appliance alone and emit over half a tonne of CO2.
  • 10 gms of carbon dioxide has an equivalent volume of 1 party balloon.
  • A Mobile Phone charger: up to 20 kWh per year ~ 3000 balloons each year. 30 kg CO2
  • Standby on electrical appliances
      • ~60+ kWh a year - ~9000 balloons.
  • Filling up with petrol (~£38 for a full tank – 40 litres)
  • --------- 90 kg of CO2 (5% of one hot air balloon)

Or one party balloon every 50 m

involve the local community
Involve the local Community
  • The residents on the island of Burray (Orkney) campaigned for a wind turbine.
  • On average they are more than self-sufficient in electricity needs and indeed are a net exporter of electricity.
  • Many of the Islanders bought shares in the project and are now reaping the reward.
  • Orkney is hoping to be a zero net emitter of carbon dioxide by 2015.
  • Even better things are happening on the Island of Westray.
slide32
Involve the local Community

Even better things are happening on the Island of Westray.

The Parish Kirk, and Community Centre are heated by heat Pumps partly powered by Wind Turbines

Waste cooking oil from other islands is processed into biodiesel for farm and other vehicles.

Ethanol used in process is obtained from fermentation of harvested sea weed

a pathway to a low carbon future
A Pathway to a Low Carbon Future
  • Switch off unnecessary appliances.
  • Turn up thermostat by 1 deg in summer and 1 deg lower in winter

2. Improve Efficiency

3. Renewable Energy

4. Offset – plant trees

slide34
Elsewhere

CRed

CRed

Birmingham

Carbon Reduction

Chester

Carbon Reduction

CRed

North Carolina

Carbon Reduction

CRed

Okinawa

Carbon Reduction

CRed

CRed

Australia

Carbon Reduction

Shanghai

Carbon Reduction

Overseas

In the Future

so what can you do what can you do as a school
CRed

Libya??

Carbon Reduction

So what can you do?What can you do as a School
  • Pledge to save energy
  • Join and commit to Carbon Dioxide reduction
  • >>>

CRED

LaoTzu (604-531 BC) Chinese philosopher

"If you do not change direction, you may end up where you are heading."

slide36
CRed

Carbon Reduction

Keith Tovey (杜伟贤)

MA, PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv

Н.К.Тови М.Ад-р технических наук

Energy Science Director

HSBC Director of Low Carbon Innovation

Email: [email protected]

This presentation will be placed on WEB at

www.cred-uk.org

>>Follow Academic Links

slide37
The average

family car

releases

10 grams

of CO2

every 50m

Animation Courtesy of Rob Hannington

insulating a building will keep it cool and save energy
Insulating a building will keep it cool and save energy

An insulated building will heat up less quickly and save energy

slide40
1.0

0.5

0.0

-0.5

Is Global Warming man made?

actual

predicted

Temperature Rise (oC)

1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000

  • Predictions include:
  • Greenhouse Gas emissions
  • Sulphates and ozone
  • Solar and volcanic activity

Prediction: Anthropogenic only

Not a good match between 1920 and 1970

Source: Hadley Centre, The Met.Office

slide41
1.0

0.5

0.0

-0.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

-0.5

Is Global Warming man made?

actual

predicted

Temperature Rise (oC)

1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000

Temperature Rise (oC)

1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000

  • Predictions include:
  • Greenhouse Gas emissions
  • Sulphates and ozone
  • Solar and volcanic activity

Prediction: Natural only

good match until 1960

Source: Hadley Centre, The Met.Office

slide42
1.0

0.5

0.0

-0.5

Is Global Warming man made?

actual

predicted

Temperature Rise (oC)

1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000

  • Predictions include:
  • Greenhouse Gas emissions
  • Sulphates and ozone
  • Solar and volcanic activity

Prediction: Natural and Anthropogenic

Generally a good match

Source: Hadley Centre, The Met.Office

slide43
Gas and Oil Production - ASPO projection 2004

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

Billion barrels of oil a year

1930 1950 1970 1990 2010 2030 2050

electricity generation in libya1
Electricity Generation in Libya

Heat Lost from power station

51104 GWh

Lost from wires

5704 GWh

28%

Oil

57001 GWh

Electricity actually used

12059 GWh

Electricity

20202 GWh

Power Station

28% efficient in Libya

Used for extracting oil and gas

2403 GWh

GAS

14305 GWh

Each unit of electricity used causes the emission of 1532 gms of CO2

In UK 520 gms, France 70 grams China 850 gms

18.47 million tonnes of CO2 are emitted in the generation of Electricity

Data from IEA Balance Tables for Libya.

using energy causes emission of co 2
Using Energy causes emission of CO2
  • What fuels do you use to heat your home in winter?
    • Gas?
    • Oil?
    • Electricity?
  • What fuels do you use in summer?
    • Electricity?
  • Each fuel emits different amounts of carbon dioxide
  • Gas for heating 210 – 260 gms per unit of heat 21 – 26 balloons
    • Approximately same in all countries
  • Oil for heating 310 – 400 gms
    • Similar same in all countries
  • Electricity 1530 grms [153 balloons] for Libya
  • But 520 gms in UK and 80 gms in Switzerland

Why the difference?

slide48
Options for Renewable Electricity Generation

Tidal Barrages

Output 78 000 GWh per annum

Sufficient for 13500 houses in Orkney

Save 40000 tonnes of CO2

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