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A REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE ON COP ISSUES – SESSION 4: DEVELOPMENT AND TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY. By Angela Katongo Kabuswe. Outline. Introduction Why Technology Development and Transfer Elements of Technological Change DTT in the context of the UNFCCC Recent developments

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A REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE ON COP ISSUES – SESSION 4: DEVELOPMENT AND TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY


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a regional perspective on cop issues session 4 development and transfer of technology

A REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE ON COP ISSUES – SESSION 4: DEVELOPMENT AND TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY

By

Angela Katongo Kabuswe

outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Why Technology Development and Transfer
  • Elements of Technological Change
  • DTT in the context of the UNFCCC
  • Recent developments
  • Challenges for developing countries
  • Current negotiations and proposals
  • Way Forward
introduction
Introduction
  • Technology, a critical component for addressing climate change (mitigation and adaptation)
  • However, developing countries have inadequate capacity to develop their own technologies, thus the need for DTT
  • Importance of DTT recognised as far back as COP 1, i.e. decisions 13/CP.1 requested the COP secretariat to prepare an inventory of environmentally sound and economically viable technologies
  • To date, a series of developments have taken place within the convention
why technology transfer
Why Technology Transfer
  • To assist developing countries to access state of the art environmentally sound and economically viable technologies
  • To effectively mitigate and adapt to climate change (reduce GHG emissions)
  • To acquire Environmental and Socio-economic benefits
  • To reduce costs of mitigation and adaptation thereby contributing to sustainable development
elements of technological change
Elements of Technological Change
  • Invention – discovery, creation, development of knowledge
  • Innovation- improvement, modernisation, creation of a commercial product or process
  • Adoption – acceptance, implementation, deployment and use of the new technology
  • Diffusion– dissemination, distribution, dispersion, increasing adoption and use of the technology
dtt in the context of the unfccc
DTT in the context of the UNFCCC
  • DTT is provided for under the convention as enshrined in article 4.5 (Developed countries should take all practicable steps to promote, facilitate and finance, the transfer of, or access to, environmentally sound technologies particularly to developing countries to enable them to implement the provisions of the Convention)
tt in the context of the unfccc contd
TT in the context of the UNFCCC contd’
  • Decision 4/CP7 established a framework to enhance implementation of article 4.5
  • Five key themes were identified in the framework
  • Technology Needs and Needs Assessments (TNAs)
  • Technology information
  • Enabling environments
  • Capacity building
  • Mechanisms for technology transfer
  • The same decision paved way for the establishment of the Expert Group on Technology Transfer (EGTT) with 19 members, 3 from each of the developing country regions (Africa, Asia and Latin America) to enhance implementation of article 4.5
tt in the context of the unfccc contd1
TT in the context of the UNFCCC contd’
  • DTT is provided for under the SBI and SBSTA
  • The Bali Action Plan advocates for enhanced action on tech dev to support action on mitigation and adaptation thru:
  • Removal of obstacles to, and provision of finances and incentives for DTT (IPRs, costs, market value)
  • Accelerating the deployment, operating, maintaining, diffusion and transfer of affordable technologies
  • Cooperating on research and development of current, new and innovative technologies
recent developments
Recent Developments
  • COP 13 agreed to reconstitute the EGTT for a further 5 years
  • Decision 4/CP.13 requested GEF to elaborate a strategic programme to scale up the level of investment for DTT
  • COP 13 adopted a set of actions for enhancing the implementation of DTT framework i.e thru organisation of meetings and workshops and implementation of the results of TNAs
  • Decision 4/CP13 requested parties to submit by 15/02/08 views on the TORs for review and assessment of the implementation of article 4.5
  • The COP secretariat has developed a Technology Information System including a web page and an inventory of environmentally friendly technologies and projects to improve the flow and access to information (TT: Clear)
recent developments contd
Recent Developments Contd’
  • The recent Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-Term Cooperative Action (AWG-LCA 3), 21- 27 August 2008 in Accra, Ghana had the following views
  • They noted the relevance of the work by EGTT and the need for research and collaboration between developed and developing countries.
  • They highlighted the IPR regime as a barrier to DTT
  • They suggested the creation of a specialized body on technology transfer.
  • http://unfccc.int/cooperation_and_support/technology/items/1126.php
challenges
Challenges
  • So far, DTT has not been very effective as it has focused more on mitigation and on the north-south transfer.
  • Most countries have completed their NAPAs but lack the technology and finances to implement them
  • Acceptability and adaptation of certain technologies has been a challenge as issues of cultural and local values are not taken on board.
  • Intellectual Property Rights and issues of investment risks are still a stumbling block to DTT
  • Lack of legally binding instruments on DTT
  • Lack of an enabling national environments in some countries (policy, legislation, human, institutional)
  • Inadequate human and institutional capacity to absorb new technologies
current negotiations and proposals
Current Negotiations and Proposals
  • Establishing a new international mechanism for DTT (multilateral Fund to disseminate existing technologies, purchase licenses, provide incentives, support research; institutional arrangement to manage the fund; Incentives to reward and credit DTT)
  • Scaling up technological cooperation in support of research and development of specific technologies
  • Creating enabling environments for both providers and recipients (IPRs, domestic policies and institutions, regulations and standard)
  • Promoting dialogue between the parties and the Private sector (round – table discussion at COP 14)
way forward
Way Forward
  • Africa to support the new proposals on a DTT multilateral fund, institutional framework and a round table discussion between parties and private sector at COP 14
  • Issues of intellectual property rights to be given due attention
  • Regular performance reviews to be carried out on article 4.5
  • Cultural barriers and issues of IPR to be taken on board for efficiency and acceptability of DTT
  • Issues of legally binding instruments on adaptation technology to be part of the Post 2012 discussions.
  • Africa to advocate more for DTT on adaptation as opposed to mitigation