Types /Classification of Public Debt 1. Internal and External Debt: A) Internal Debt B) External Debt 2. Productive and Unproductive Debt: A) Productive Debt – Yield income Productive purposes – Railways, Irrigation Projects B) Unproductive Debt – War, Famine Relief 3. Voluntary and Compulsory Debt: A) Voluntary Debt – No compulsion -
- Through Securities and Bonds. B) Compulsory Debt – Force people to lend money – Employees provident funds. 4. Redeemable and Irredeemable Debt – A) Redeemable Debt – Repaid with interest and principal- Fixed time period. B) Irredeemable Debt – Interest paid regularly – Period is not fixed
5.Funded and Unfunded Debt: A) Funded Debt – Long term debt – One Year – for Building Social and Economic Infrastructure B) Unfunded Debt – Short term debt – Less than one year – Treasury Bills 6. Short, Medium and Long Term Debts: A) Short Term Debts – Less than one year - Treasury Bills – Cover Temporary Deficits in Budget B) Medium Term Debts -
One to Five Years – Reasonable Interest Rate- War, Health, Education Relief Work etc. C) Long Term Debt – More than Five years – Development Finance.
BURDEN OF PUBLIC DEBT Burden imposes on society 1.Burden of Internal Debt – Raised and Repaid Within the Country- Transfer of Purchasing Power from one to another. Imposes Burden in the Following Way- i)Direct Real Burden – Indirect Taxes ii)Indirect Real Burden -
Negative effect on Ability and Willingness to Work, Save and Investment. iii) Effect on Private Investment – Offers High Rates of Interest iv)Effect on Capital Expenditure – To meet Revenue Deficit – No Development of Infrastructure v) Inflation – Indirect Taxes –Reduce the Purchasing Power of the Poor.