Samples. Skill 304. Dr. Mohammad Marie Lecture \ 4. Learning objectives. To know what is the meaning of blood culture. To recognize types of urine samples . To learn procedure of urine specimen collection. To learn procedure of sputum specimen collection.
1- when the patient has recurring fever collect the blood as the temperature begins to rise .
2- for other patients collect the blood as soon as possible after receiving the request .
* To increase the chance of isolating a pathogen it is usually recommended that at least two specimens are collected at different times.
1- Random Specimen
2- Timed Collection Specimen
1- You should collect every drop of urine during each 24-hour period. It does not matter how much or little urine is passed each time, as long as every drop is collected.
2- Begin the urine collection in the morning after you wake up, after you have emptied your bladder for the first time.
3- Urinate (empty the bladder) for the first time and flush it down the toilet. Note the exact time (e.g, 5:00 AM). You will begin the urine collection at this time.
4- Collect every drop of urine during the day and night in an empty collection bottle. Store the bottle at room temperature or in the refrigerator.
5- If you need to have a bowel movement, any urine passed with the bowel movement should be collected.
6- Finish by collecting the first urine passed the next morning, adding it to the collection bottle. This should be within ten minutes before or after the time of the first morning void on the first day (which was flushed). In this example, you would try to void between 4:50 and 5:10 on the second day.
3-First Morning Specimen
4- Midstream Clean Catch Specimen
5- Catheter Collection Specimen
6- Pediatric Specimen
1- Wash hands thoroughly
2- Assemble necessary equipment.
3- Confirm the patient’s identity using two patient identifiers.
4- Tell the patient that :
* you will collect a specimen of sputum (not saliva) and explain the procedure.
* The cup is very clean. So Don’t open it until you are ready to use it.
5- Instruct the patient to sit in a chair or at the edge of the bed. If the patient cannot sit up place him in high Fowler’s position.
* Place the head of the bed at 30° for semi-Fowler's, 45° to 60° for Fowler's, and 90° for high Fowler's
6- Ask the patient to rinse his/ her mouth with water (avoid mouthwash solution or toothpaste).
7- Tell patient to cough deeply and expectorate directly into the specimen container. Ask the patient to produce at least 15ml of sputum.
8- Cap the container and if necessary, clean its exterior.
For the detection of the causative agent of pneumonia or tuberculosis .
Examples of common causative agents of bacterial pneumonia: