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10.0 EROEI & “Emergy”. Frank R. Leslie, B. S. E. E., M. S. Space Technology, LS IEEE 2/1/2010, Rev. 2.0 fleslie @fit.edu; (321) 674-7377 www.fit.edu/~fleslie. Dr. Howard T. Odum, Univ. Florida. In Other News . . . .

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slide1

10.0 EROEI & “Emergy”

Frank R. Leslie,

B. S. E. E., M. S. Space Technology, LS IEEE

2/1/2010, Rev. 2.0

fleslie @fit.edu; (321) 674-7377

www.fit.edu/~fleslie

Dr. Howard T. Odum, Univ. Florida

in other news
In Other News . . .
  • Obama favors nuclear energy and is working to get Federal money to support it
  • Obama is also pushing ahead with bioethanol much to the anguish of environmentalists and other EROEI types
introduction to eroei
Introduction to “EROEI”
  • EROEI is the acronym for Energy Return On Energy Invested
  • For example, suppose you had to fuel a diesel generator located on San Clemente Island, California that supplied electricity to an important Navy navigation light
    • A lot of fuel is required so a Coast Guard cutter carries the fuel in a deck tank
    • The cutter is 35 ft long, so it requires a lot of fuel to power it
    • If the cost of the boat fuel, crew time, etc., exceeds that of the delivered fuel; this isn’t efficient!
    • Put in two wind turbines and PV! Use diesel as backup power http://www.nps.gov/chis/esri.htm
    • http://www.eere.energy.gov/femp/techassist/275.html

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10 0 about this presentation
10.0 About This Presentation
  • 10.1 Dr. Howard T. Odum, ecologist at U. Florida
  • 10.2 Emergy
  • 10.3 EROEI
  • 10.4 Conclusion

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10 1 dr howard t odum
10.1 Dr. Howard T. Odum
  • Professor of Environmental Engineering Sciences at University of Florida who studied the economics of energy
  • Dr. Odum used “embodied energy” to represent the energy required to make the energy of a different kind
    • In 1983, he started calling this “Emergy”
    • An important concept is the energy return on energy invested or EROEI
    • He died in 2002; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Howard_T._Odum
  • Past Adj. Prof. Diane Barile of DMES took courses from Dr. Odum

http://dieoff.org/page232.pdf

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10 2 1 emergy
10.2.1 Emergy
  • “Emergy” is a composite (portmanteau word) of “embodied or embedded” and “energy” (suggested by David Scienceman of Australia.) [Lewis G. Carroll has Humpty Dumpty say, "Well, slithy means 'lithe and slimy'... You see it's like a portmanteau — there are two meanings packed up into one word." --- Wikipedia]
  • In short, emergy addresses how much energy is embedded in a product; how much energy did it take to build the product
  • It represents the “memory” of the energy that built a product
  • Dr. Odum claimed that photovoltaics used more energy in construction than could be gotten out of them; this has been challenged; it is now estimated to be about two years to pay off the PV installation
  • Within the energy field, one wouldn’t want to use far more energy in building a wind turbine than one would ever gain back during its lifetime

http://dieoff.org/page232.pdf

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10 2 emergy paper abstract
10.2 Emergy Paper Abstract

“April 2000, Emergy Accounting, Howard T. Odum

Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA, htoeco@aol.com

Abstract

Emergy-emdollar evaluation is introduced including concepts and instructions for making calculations. Because of the universal hierarchy of energy, work on any scale of the environment or within the economy may be compared on a common basis by expressing products and services in emergy units.

Emergy is the available energy (exergy) of one kind previously required to be used up directly and indirectly to make the product or service. Quality of anything is measured by the emergy per unit.

Emergy measures real wealth, and emergy per person measures standard of living. Emergy per unit money measures real wealth buying power and is used to calculate emdollars, the economic equivalent.

Whereas real wealth of environmental resources is inverse to monetary costs and prices, emdollars indicate their true contribution to the human economy. Emergy/money ratios vary greatly among nations, causing great inequities in foreign trade and investments. Public policy on any scale can be successful by maximizing emdollars.”

http://dieoff.org/page232.pdf

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10 3 eroei
10.3 EROEI
  • Oil gushers returned ~20 times the energy required to dig the well --- 20:1
    • It’s now fallen to about 2:1; harder to get oil
  • Tar sands must be heated to drive off the oil, and the EROEI is ~1.3:1
  • Bioethanol estimated at 0.7:1 by Pimental; now estimated at 1.3:1 by others
  • Electricity requires about three times the thermal heat to obtain one unit of electricity, 0.33:1, but we still do it because of other advantages
    • “You don’t always get what you want, but sometimes you get what you need” --- Rolling Stones http://popup.lala.com/popup/432627077912420282
10 6 conclusion
10.6 Conclusion
  • Emergy attracts a strange mix of economists and energy scientists/engineers
  • The science of emergy is obscure and arcane, but as a college friend of mine used to say, “It’s well-known, but only to a few!” [Miles E. Hall, ca. 1957]
  • Considerations of emergy are necessary to know if an energy conversion system should be built

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10 a1 odum s glossary part 1
10.A1 Odum’s Glossary Part 1

“Available energy - Energy with the potential to do work (exergy).

Donor value - A value of a product determined by the production process and not by what a person is willing to pay (examples, mass and energy of wood).

Emdollar value - Dollars of gross economic product obtained by dividing the emergy of a product by the appropriate emergy/money ratio. The dollars of gross economic product equivalent to the wealth measured in emergy units.

Emergy (spelled with an "M") - All the available energy that was used in the work of making a product directly and indirectly expressed in units of one type of available energy.

Emergy exchange ratio - Ratio of emergy received to emergy paid out in barter, trade, purchases, or other exchanges.

Emjoule - The unit of emergy; a joule of available energy of one kind of energy previously used up to make a service or product.

Energy - A property of all systems which can be turned into heat and measured in heat units (Calories, BTUs or joules).

Energy hierarchy - The convergence and transformation of energy from many small units into smaller amounts of higher-level types of energy (often in units of larger size) with greater ability to interact with and control smaller units.

Energy systems diagrams using energy circuit symbols - General systems overview for representing parts and connections of any system, including flows and storages of materials, energy, information, and money (Figure 4).

Exergy - Available energy - Energy with the potential to do useful work and which is used up in the process.”

http://dieoff.org/page232.pdf

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10 a1 odum s glossary part 2
10.A1 Odum’s Glossary Part 2

“Gross economic product - The total market value of all final goods and services produced in an economy in one year.

Investment ratio (emergy investment ratio) - The ratio of emergy brought into an area from outside its economy to the local, free environmental emergy used in the interaction processes.Maximizing emergy - The process by which the maximum power principle operates within a system to select from among the available components and interactions the combination that results in production of the most emergy.

Maximum empower principle - Self organization selects designs by reinforcing network pathways that maximize empower. This is a clarification of the maximum power principle to recognize that each level in the natural energy hierarchy self organizes with the same principle at the same time.Maximum empower principle - Self organization selects designs by reinforcing network pathways that maximize empower. This is a clarification of the maximum power principle to recognize that each level in the natural energy hierarchy self organizes with the same principle at the same time.

Maximum power principle - An explanation from Alfred Lotka and others for the designs observed in self organizing systems (energy transformations, hierarchical patterns, feedback controls, amplifier actions, etc.). Designs prevail because they draw in more available energy and use it with more efficiency than alternatives.

Net emergy - The emergy yield from a resource after all the emergy used in the process has been subtracted.

Net emergy ratio (Emergy yield ratio) - The ratio of the emergy yield to that required for processing.

Next larger scale - Larger territorial areas occupied by units with longer replacement times which must be considered in determining system behavior because of the controls larger units exert on smaller scale units and processes. (See Energy hierarchy.)”

http://dieoff.org/page232.pdf

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10 a1 odum s glossary part 3
10.A1 Odum’s Glossary Part 3

“Real wealth - Entities and flows containing available energy (exergy) capable of depreciating according to the second Law; usable products and services; Examples: food, fuels, material concentrations, houses, organisms, information, land, labor, controls.Reinforce - The action of a unit or process to enhance production and survival of a contributing unit or process, thereby enhancing itself; a loop of mutually enhancing interactions.

Second law of thermodynamics - Principle that energy concentrations disperse spontaneously, and in all energy transformations some of the available energy is dispersed in the process.Self organization - The process by which systems use energy to develop structure and organization.

Solar emergy - Solar energy required directly and indirectly to make a product or service. Units are

solar emjoules (abbreviated sej or semj) or solar emcalories (abbreviated secal or semcal).

Solar transformity - Solar emergy per unit energy, expressed in solar emjoules per joule (sej/J).

Sustainable use - Resource use that can be continued by society in the long run because the use level and system design allow resources to be renewed by natural or man-aided processes.Systems ecology - The field which came from the union of systems theory and ecology and provides a world view for energy analysis.

Transformity - The emergy of one type required to make a unit of energy of another type. E.g., since three coal joules and one coal emjoules of services are required to generate one joule of electricity, the coal transformity of electricity is four coal emjoules per joule.

Turnover time or replacement time - The time for a flow to replace a stored quantity. For example, a flow of 10 gallons of water per day will replace a 1000 gallon tank of water in 100 days.

Wealth - Ambiguous term which needs an adjective to distinguish monetary wealth (state of being rich with money) from real wealth (definition above).

*Modified from Dan Campbell 1996 [10].”

http://dieoff.org/page232.pdf

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10 references emergy
10 References: Emergy
  • http://dieoff.org/page232.pdf Good reference!
  • Dieoff.org doom and gloom for the human race
  • Odum, Howard T. Environmental Accounting. NY: John Wiley & Sons, 370 pp, 1996.
  • http://www.unicamp.br/fea/ortega/creta/HTObooks.htm
  • Maximum Power: The Ideas and Applications of H. T. OdumCharles A. S. Hall (Editor), Charles A. Hall. Univ Press
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Howard_T._Odum

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