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The acquirement of scientific knowledge. Aka the scientific method. What is The Scientific Method?. Defined as an organized, logical approach to solve a problem or question. Steps of the Scientific Method. Define a Problem or Ask a Question

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what is the scientific method
What is The Scientific Method?
  • Defined as an organized, logical approach to solve a problem or question
steps of the scientific method
Steps of the Scientific Method
  • Define a Problem or Ask a Question
        • A clear statement of the problem or question is a crucial step in beginning an investigation
steps of the scientific method1
Steps of the Scientific Method
  • Make Observations
    • Use of all or some of the senses (sight, taste, feel, hearing, or smell)
      • Called a qualitative observation
    • Make a measurement
      • Called a quantitative observation
steps of the scientific method2
Steps of the Scientific Method
  • Formulate a Hypothesis
    • Predict a possible answer to the problem or question
    • It should be based on facts and observations
    • Should be capable of testing
steps of the scientific method3
Steps of the Scientific Method
  • Designing and Performing an Experiment
    • Develop and follow a procedure
      • Include a detailed materials list
    • The outcome must be measurable (quantifiable)
    • Experiment must be controlled and include independent and dependent variables!
    • Experimental evidence will either support or contradict hypothesis
independent variable the cause
Independent variable(The Cause)
  • The independent, or manipulated variable, is a factor that’s intentionally varied by the experimenter
    • Goes after the “If” in your hypothesis!
dependent variable the effect
Dependent variable(The effect)
  • The dependent, or responding variable, is the factor that may change as a result of changes made in the independent variable
    • Goes after the “Then” in your hypothesis!
control group
Control group
  • In a scientific experiment, the control is the group that serves as the standard of comparison
  • The control group may be a “no treatment" or an “experimenter selected” group
control group1
Control group
  • The control group is exposed to the same conditions as the experimental group, except for the variable being tested

All experiments should have a control group!

steps of the scientific method4
Steps of the Scientific Method
  • Collect and Analyze Results
    • Data, such as observations and measurements, are recorded and then analyzed
    • Confirm the results by retesting
      • Put your data into a data table
      • Make the data table into a graph
      • Graphs make it easier to see patterns in the data!
        • DRY MIX
          • Dependent variable = Responding variable = Y-axis
          • Manipulated variable = Independent variable = X-axis
    • If the data support the hypothesis, then the conclusion would state that the hypothesis is supported
    • If the data contradict the hypothesis, then a new hypothesis must be made and tested
steps of the scientific method5
Steps of the Scientific Method
  • Draw a Conclusion
    • Scientists base their conclusions on observations made during experimentation
    • Include a statement that accepts or rejects the hypothesis
      • A hypothesis is NEVER correct or incorrect
    • Make recommendations for further study and possible improvements to the procedure
in summary
In Summary…
  • Careful observation and collection of data is the foundation of any experiment
  • Observations must be reproducible and may be categorized as:
    • Qualitative
      • Descriptive, e.g., blue
    • Quantitative
      • Measureable, e.g., 4.0 cm
  • What is an inference?
    • An inference is an explanation or assumption of what is observed
      • These are conclusions and may change as more data is collected
time for the candle demo
Time for the candle demo
  • Watch closely and list as many observations as you can on page 14 of your notebook!
    • Then, identify each observation as quantitative, qualitative, or an inference
  • A table like the one below may be useful in organizing your thoughts:
  • Did any of your earlier observations change after your last observation (eating the candle)?
  • How does this relate to what we discussed about the scientific method?
your turn
Your turn!
  • Time to apply the scientific method with the Gum Lab!