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Health Physics 563-613BRegulatory Aspects and Licensing(or who’s who) Lecture # 2 ( Sep. 17, 2004)Michael Evans
Historical Discovery of X-Ray: W. Röentgen Nov. 8, 1895 Prof. J. Cox (Physics - McGill ) and Dr. R. Kirkpatrick (MGH). Feb. 7, 1896 - 45 minute radiograph of the tibia showing the location of a bullet. First radiograph to be accepted as evidence in a court of law.
Legal Jurisdiction International Bodies (Advisory) National Bodies (Advisory and Binding) Provincial (Generally Binding) Municipal (Binding and Soliciting) Institutional (Soliciting)
Legal Jurisdiction Radiation Oncology (Federal) Nuclear Medicine (Federal) Diagnostic Imaging (Provincial) Health Physics (Fed / Prov / Municipal)
International Commission on Radiological ProtectionICRP The International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP, is an independent Registered Charity, established to advance for the public benefit the science of radiological protection, in particular by providing recommendations and guidance on all aspects of protection against ionising radiation. An advisory body providing recommendations and guidance on radiation protection; Founded in 1928 by the International Society of Radiology (ISR), then called the ‘International X-ray and Radium Protection Committee Was restructured to better take account of uses of radiation outside the medical area, and given its present name, in 1950; Based in the United Kingdom with a small scientific secretariat in Sweden.
International Commission on Radiological ProtectionICRP ICRP published its recommendations and advice as papers in various scientific journals in the fields of medicine and physics. Since 1959, ICRP has its own series of publications, since 1977 in the shape of a scientific journal, the Annals of the ICRP
ICRP Publications ICRP Publication 23: Reference Man: Anatomical, Physiological and Metabolic Characteristics … ICRP Publication 28: The Principles and General Procedures for Handling Emergency and Accidental Exposure of Workers … ICRP Publication 44: Protection of the Patient in Radiation Therapy … ICRP Publication 84: Pregnancy and Medical Radiation … ICRP Publication 92: Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE), Quality Factor (Q), and Radiation Weighting Factor (wR) www.icrp.org $$
International Commission on Radiation UnitsICRU The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) was established in 1925 by the International Congress of Radiology. Since its inception, it has had as its principal objective the development of internationally acceptable recommendations regarding (1) quantities and units of radiation and radioactivity; (2) procedures suitable for the measurement and application of these quantities in diagnostic radiology, radiation therapy, radiation biology, and industrial operations; and (3) physical data needed in the application of these procedures, the use of which tends to assure uniformity in reporting
International Commission on Radiation UnitsICRU The ICRU endeavors to collect and evaluate the latest data and information pertinent to the problems of radiation measurement and dosimetry, and to recommend in its publications the most acceptable values and techniques for current use
ICRU Publications 71: Prescribing, Recording, and Reporting Electron Beam Therapy(2004), Journal of the ICRU, vol.4 no.1, available only from OUP 62 : Prescribing, Recording and Reporting Photon Beam Therapy (Supplement to ICRU Report 50) ( 1999 ) US$ 65.00 50 : Prescribing, Recording and Reporting Photon Beam Therapy ( 1993 ) US$ 60.00 23 : Measurement of Absorbed Dose in a Phantom Irradiated by a Single Beam of X or Gamma Rays ( 1973 ) US$ 40.00
International Radiation Protection AssociationIRPA Primary purpose of IRPA is to provide a medium whereby those engaged in radiation protection activities in all countries may communicate more readily with each other and through this process advance radiation protection in many parts of the world. Further objectives of IRPA are: - encourage the establishment of radiation protection societies throughout the world as a means of achieving international cooperation, - provide for and support international meetings for the discussions of all aspects of radiation protection• encourage international publications dedicated to radiation protection, - encourage research and educational opportunities in those scientific and related disciplines which support radiation protection• encourage the establishment and continuous review of universally acceptable radiation protection standards or recommendations through the international bodies concerned.
National Council on Radiation Protectionand Measurements (NCRP) The NCRP has been active in the areas of radiation protection and measurements since its inception as “The Advisory Committee on X-Ray and Radium Protection” in 1929. It was originally established to represent all of the national radiological organizations in the United States on a collective, scientific basis and to serve, in essence, as the United States national analog of the ICRP. The NCRP originally operated as an informal association of scientists seeking to make available information and recommendations on radiation protection and measurements. More than 30 major reports were produced during the early period of the NCRP's history including the first recommendation specifying a maximum permissible level of exposure.The NCRP was reorganized and chartered by the U.S. Congress in 1964 as the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.
National Council on Radiation Protectionand Measurements (NCRP) Objectives: 1. collect, analyze, develop and disseminate in the public interest information and recommendations about (a) protection against radiation (referred to herein as radiation protection) and (b) radiation measurements, quantities and units, particularly those concerned with radiation protection; 2. provide a means by which organizations concerned with the scientific and related aspects of radiation protection and of radiation quantities, units and measurements may cooperate for effective utilization of their combined resources, and to stimulate the work of such organizations; 3. develop basic concepts about radiation quantities, units and measurements, about the application of these concepts, and about radiation protection; 4. cooperate with the ICRP, the Federal Radiation Council, the ICRU, and other national and international organizations, governmental and private, concerned with radiation quantities, units and measurements and with radiation protection.”
NCRP Publications NCRP 49: Structural Shielding Design and Evaluation for Medical Use of X Rays and Gamma Rays of Energies up to 10 MeV (1976)… NCRP 94: Exposure of the Population in the United States and Canada from Natural Background Radiation (1988) NCRP 90: Neptunium: Radiation Protection Guidelines (1987) NCRP 127: Operational Radiation Safety Program (1998) NCRP 144:Radiation Protection for Particle Accelerator Facilities (2003)
Biological Effects of Ionizing radiationBEIR • (BEIR) III : "The Effects on Populations of Exposure to Low Levels of ionizing Radiation”(1980) • (BEIR) V : "The Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of ionizing Radiation”(1988) • (BEIR) VI : "Health Effects of Exposure to Indoor Radon”(1999) Reports are produced by a sub-committee of the National Academy of Science for the National Research Council which reports to the US Congress
U N Scientific Cmmt’e on the Effects of Atomic Radiation UNSCEAR • UNSCEAR was established by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1955. Its mandate in the United Nations system is to assess and report levels and effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. Governments and organizations throughout the world rely on the Committee's estimates as the scientific basis for evaluating radiation risk, establishing radiation protection and safety standards, and regulating radiation sources. Exposures from the Chernobyl accident" (74 pages) of the UNSCEAR 1988 Report. Acute radiation effects in victims of the Chernobyl accident
Int’l Atomic Energy AgencyIAEA Millions of Cancer Victims in Developing Countries Lack Access to Life-Saving Radiotherapy 2003 | The number of cancer patients in the developing world will double to 10 million new cases annually by 2015 (World Cancer Report, World Health Organization, 2003), most of whom will have no access to the radiation therapy that could save or prolong their lives, and decrease their pain and suffering.
Int’l Atomic Energy AgencyIAEA IAEA is often a “first responder” in cases of radiation accidents in various settings including the medical community. IAEA can offer help and support to communities with insufficient medical physics support, and help with dose estimates. Spain - Linac accident Panama - Cobalt mistreatment Brazil - Ruptured/stolen Cesium source ……
Some international web sites www.irpa.net www.icru.org www.icrp.org www.ncrp.com www.nationalacademies.org (BEIR) www.nap.edu/catalog (BEIR) www.unscear.org www.iaea.org www-naweb.iaea.org/iaea.org/nahu/dmrp
Other Organizations Bureau International de Métrologie Légale Bureau International des Poids et Mesures Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences European Commission EC Research on Radiation Protection EC Regulatory Aspects of Radiation Protection Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO World Agricultural Information Centre International Committee of Photobiology International Council for Science ICSU International Electrotechnical Commission International Labour Office International Labour Organization International Organization for Medical Physics International Organization for Standardization International Society of Radiology International Union of Pure and Applied Physics Radiation Research Society The American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Inc. The American Association of Physicists in Medicine United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization World Health Organization World Standards Services Network WSSN
Canadian Nuclear Safety CommissionCNSC • The mission of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is to regulate the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect health, safety, security and the environment and to respect Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy.On May 31, 2000, when the former Atomic Energy Control Board became the CNSC, it was provided with a stronger mandate to carry out its job.
Canadian Nuclear Safety CommissionCNSC Under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act, the CNSC's mandate involves four major areas: regulation of the development, production and use of nuclear energy in Canada; regulation of the production, possession, use and transport of nuclear substances, and the production, possession and use of prescribed equipment and prescribed information; implementation of measures respecting international control of the development, productions, transport and use of nuclear energy and substances, including measures respecting the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and nuclear explosive devices; dissemination of scientific, technical and regulatory information concerning the activities of the CNSC, and the effects on the environment, on the health and safety of persons, of the development, production, possession, transport and use of nuclear substances.
CNSC jurisdiction CNSC regulations apply to: Power reactors Non-power reactors Nuclear research and test establishments Uranium mines and mills Processing and fuel fabrication facilities Heavy water production plants Nuclear substance processing facilities Particle accelerators Waste management facilities Packaging and transportation of nuclear substances Nuclear substances and radiation devices Lands under evaluation Irradiators Imports and exports of nuclear items Exports of nuclear-related dual-use items Dosimetry service providers
CNSC Regulations • Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission Rules of Procedure • General Nuclear Safety and Control Regulations • Office Consolidation • Radiation Protection Regulations • Class I Nuclear Facilities Regulations • Class II Nuclear Facilities and Prescribed Equipment Regulations • Uranium Mines and Mills Regulations • Nuclear Substances and Radiation Devices Regulations • Packaging and Transport of Nuclear Substances Regulations • Office Consolidation • Nuclear Security Regulations • Nuclear Non-Proliferation Import and Export Control Regulations • CNSC Cost Recovery Fees Regulations
CNSC Class Structuresand Licensing Class I and II and all radioactive substances below exemption quantities Risk types : Low, Medium and High Controlled Areas Class A ; alpha and high gamma: 3 Bq/cm2 Class B ; beta and medium gamma: 30 Bq/cm2 Class C ; pure beta and low gamma: 300 Bq/cm2
CNSC Class Structuresand Licensing Class II 1015 Bq = 27 000 Ci
CNSC for Radiation Oncology Regulation of all radioactive material Regulation of all Class II prescribed equipment Regulation of linear accelerators above 10 MV due to photo-activation Mandate is acquired through “The Act”:
CNSC Radiation Therapy Licensing Prescribed Equipment Licensing Brachytherapy, Linacs. Teletherapy i Construction ii Operate to commission iii Operate iv Decommission Therapy Servicing License Survey Meter Calibration
CNSC Operating License • Operating License • Operating to commission • Safety Tests • Acceptance Tests • Commissioning • Safety Report • Operating to treat • Scheduled safety procedures • Annual Compliance Reports • Renewals • Inspections/audits
CNSC Class II Prescribed Equipment 48 Class II licenses 121 Class II PE Units Teletherapy Irradiator - Cobalt - 60 Also irradiators (GammaCell/ Cesium…) Linear Accelerators Photons (6 & 18 MV) Electrons ( 4 to 25 MeV) High dose rate brachytherapy units ( Ir - 192) @ 370 GBq
CNSC Class II Facilities Shielding dose limits,workload, Safety Systems mechanical, radiation, emergencies Training mandatory, safety, service Compliance Records previous history Dosimetry Systems personnel monitoring program
Linacs Co-60 Gamma Knife HDR LDR CNSC Class II Prescribed Equipment
CNSC Enforcement CNSC - Inspections ~ 1/year or so (no fun) CNSC - Audits @ as required (even less fun) CNSC surprise visits ~ rare but allowed (the most fun) Sanctions are on a sliding scale from infractions to warnings to fines to license revocation to legal action
Provincial a. 147 147. When there is an alteration made in the shielding, in the x-ray machine or in the latter's use, the shielding and the machine must be inspected by a physicist before operating such machine. R.R.Q., 1981, c. P-35, r. 1, s. 147 SCHEDULE 8 (ss. 143, 150, 174, 183, 185 and 190) MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE DOSE (MPD) EQUIVALENTS [L-0.2r1#09, see R.R.Q., 1981, 8-383]
Provincial L-0.2, r.1 Regulation respecting the application of the Public Health Protection Act (Updated to November, 26 2002) An Act respecting medical laboratories, organ, tissue, gamete and embryo conservation, ambulance services and the disposal of human bodies (R.S.Q., c. L-0.2, s. 69) This Act was formerly entitled :"Public Health Protection Act". The title of the Act was replaced by section 149 of chapter 60 of the statutes of 2001.
Health CanadaRadiation Protection Bureau To investigate, communicate and reduce health risks to Canadians from exposure to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. General • Radiation Protection in Health Canada • Federal Provincial Territorial Radiation Protection Committee Emergency Preparedness • Nuclear Emergency Preparedness and Response Division
Health CanadaRadiation Protection Bureau Environmental • Arctic • Canadian Radiological Monitoring Network • Cosmic Radiation Exposure and Air Travel • Radon • Radiological Impact Worker Related • Bioassay Laboratory • Human Monitoring Laboratory • National Calibration Reference Centre for Bioassay and In VivoMonitoring • National Dose Registry • National Dosimetry Services
National Dosimetry Service Thermoluminescent Dosimeters