chapter 11 introduction to organic chemistry alkanes n.
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Chapter 11 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes. 11.3 Alkanes with Substituents. Isomers of Butane. Isomers have the same molecular formula. have different atom arrangements. of butane (C 4 H 10 ) are a straight chain and a branched chain. . Alkyl groups. Alkyl groups are

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isomers of butane
Isomers of Butane

Isomers

  • have the same molecular formula.
  • have different atom arrangements.
  • of butane (C4H10) are a straight chain and a branched chain.
alkyl groups
Alkyl groups

Alkyl groups are

  • alkanes that are missing one H.
  • substituents attached to carbon chains.
  • named with a –yl ending.

H

H C CH3 methyl

H

H H

H C C CH3 CH2 ethyl

H H

naming substituents
Naming Substituents

In the IUPAC system,

  • a carbon branch is named as an alkyl group.
  • halogen atoms are named as halo.

TABLE 10.6

alkanes with substituents
Alkanes with Substituents

CH3

CH3 CH CH3 methylpropane

methyl groups

CH3 CH3

CH3 CH CH2 CH CH3 2,4-dimethylpentane

naming alkanes
Naming Alkanes

Give the name of CH3 CH3

 

CH3─CH─CH─CH3

STEP 1 Name the longest continuous chain.

CH3 CH3

 

CH3─CH─CH─CH3

butane

naming alkanes1
Naming Alkanes

Give the name of CH3 CH3

 

CH3─CH─CH─CH3

STEP 2 Number chain.CH3 CH3

 

CH3─CH─CH─CH3

1 2 3 4

STEP 3 Locate substituents and name.

2,3-dimethylbutane

learning check
Learning Check

Write the name of

ClCH3

 

CH3─CH2─CH─CH─CH3

solution
Solution

STEP 1 Longest chain is pentane.

STEP 2 Number chain from end nearest substituent.

ClCH3

 

CH3─CH2─CH─CH─CH3

5 4 3 2 1

STEP 3 Locate substituents and name alphabetically.

3-chloro-2-methylpentane

learning check1
Learning Check

Give the IUPAC name for each of the following:

A. CH3CH3

| |

CH3─CH─CH2 ─CH─CH3

B. ClCH3

||

CH3─CH2─CH─CH2─C─CH2─CH3

|

Cl

solution1
Solution

A. CH3CH3

| |

CH3─CH─CH2 ─CH─CH3 2,4-dimethylpentane

1 2 3 4 5

B. ClCH3 more substituents = C3

||

CH3─CH2─CH─CH2─C─CH2─CH3

|

Cl

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

3,5-dichloro-3-methylheptane

learning check2
Learning Check

Draw the condensed structural formula for

2-bromo-4-chlorobutane.

solution2
Solution

2-bromo-4-chlorobutane

STEP 1Longest chain has 4 carbon atoms.

C─C─C─C

STEP 2 Number chain and add substituents.

Br

C ─ C ─ C ─ C ─ Cl

1 2 3 4

STEP 3 Add hydrogen to complete 4 bonds to each C.

Br

CH3─CH─CH2─CH2─Cl

naming cycloalkanes with substituents
Naming Cycloalkanes with Substituents

The name of a substituent is placed in front of the

cycloalkane name.

methylcyclobutane CH3

chlorocyclopentane Cl

learning check3
Learning Check

Name each of the following.

1. CH3

CH2─CH3

2.

solution3
Solution

Name each of the following.

1. methylcyclopropane

2. ethylcyclohexane