geography as n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Geography AS PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Geography AS

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 46

Geography AS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 96 Views
  • Uploaded on

Geography AS. Managing Change in Human Environments Urban. Geography AS. Managing Change in Human Environments Quality of Life. Quality of Life. How do we measure Quality of Life? Who’s asking? Indicators Quality of life across Leicester Measuring quality of life on Leicester’s streets

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Geography AS' - carol


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
geography as

Geography AS

Managing Change in Human Environments

Urban

geography as1

Geography AS

Managing Change in Human Environments

Quality of Life

quality of life
Quality of Life
  • How do we measure Quality of Life?
    • Who’s asking?
    • Indicators
  • Quality of life across Leicester
  • Measuring quality of life on Leicester’s streets
  • LEDC urban quality of life
quality of life indicators
Quality of Life Indicators
  • Social
  • Disaffection
  • Crime
  • Drugs
  • Violence
  • Origin and ethnicity
  • Redundancy
    • People
    • Built environment
  • Affluence / poverty
  • Education
  • Social indices
  • Deprivation
  • Overcrowding
  • Infant mortality
  • Health
  • Demographics
  • CCJs
  • Insurance
  • Exam results
  • Economic
  • Economic activity
  • Unemployment
  • Wealth
  • Income
  • Housing
    • Value
    • Tenure
    • Condition
  • Rent arrears
  • Government assistance
    • Free school meals
    • Benefits
  • Demographics
    • Age and gender
    • Population change
  • Number and type of vehicles
  • Local policy
  • LEDC/MEDC
  • Environment
  • Litter
  • Graffiti
  • Refuse/dumping
  • Vandalism
  • Greenery
  • Access to park
  • Land use
quality of life in leicester

Industry and commerce

Low Quality of Life

Medium Quality of Life

High Quality of Life

Quality of Life in Leicester
quality of life in leicester1
Quality of Life in Leicester

Warehousing surrounding CBD. Relocation of industry late 20C to edge of city e.g. Everards. Led to run down inner city e.g. Wycliffe. Small terraced housing, no gardens, on street parking, overcrowding, good public transport, low car ownership.

Bede Island

Abandoned Industry, unattractive

1990s regeneration under City Challenge Scheme. Includes housing association housing.

Anstey Lane – inter and post war semi’s. Good housing, low unemployment, above ave car ownership

Pre-1970s Clarendon Park was low status inner city. Local Council created General Improvement Area; blocked streets to thru traffic and offered 50% grants for home improvement. Gentrification.

1960s high rise council housing e,g, St Matthews. High unemployment and low skills. 2nd lowest income in 1996 (£8.7k) and 20% illness due to stress.

Incorporation of former villages e.g. Evington. Strong community, picturesque housing. 75% owner occupied.

Saffron/Eyres Monsell the results of 1920s to 1950s inner city slum clearance. Relatively good housing conditions in edge of city council housing. Poor education and skills. Vandalism, truancy, graffiti, single parent families pose great challenges.

Industry and commerce

Low Quality of Life

Medium Quality of Life

High Quality of Life

Stoneygate, Knighton suburbanised in late 19C and early 20C due to improved public transport and movement of affluent people.

quality of life in leicester2
Quality of Life in Leicester

Warehousing surrounding CBD. Relocation of industry late 20C to edge of city e.g. Everards. Led to run down inner city e.g. Wycliffe. Small terraced housing, no gardens, on street parking, overcrowding, good public transport, low car ownership.

Bede Island

Abandoned Industry, unattractive

1990s regeneration under City Challenge Scheme. Includes housing association housing.

Anstey Lane – inter and post war semi’s. Good housing, low unemployment, above ave car ownership

Pre-1970s Clarendon Park was low status inner city. Local Council created General Improvement Area; blocked streets to thru traffic and offered 50% grants for home improvement. Gentrification.

1960s high rise council housing e,g, St Matthews. High unemployment and low skills. 2nd lowest income in 1996 (£8.7k) and 20% illness due to stress.

Incorporation of former villages e.g. Evington. Strong community, picturesque housing. 75% owner occupied.

Saffron/Eyres Monsell the results of 1920s to 1950s inner city slum clearance. Relatively good housing conditions in edge of city council housing. Poor education and skills. Vandalism, truancy, graffiti, single parent families pose great challenges.

Industry and commerce

Low Quality of Life

Medium Quality of Life

High Quality of Life

Stoneygate, Knighton suburbanised in late 19C and early 20C due to improved public transport and movement of affluent people.

slide8
Quality of Life in Mexico City
    • Research
      • Geofile 306
      • Colour map Fig. 3
      • How can such a monster be managed?
      • OCR Mexico case study
      • Homework – Internet, books etc
      • DMI – Mexico City location animation Shanty Town animation
    • Six teams;
slide9
Map the Quality of Life across Mexico City with specific reference to;
  • Team research;
    • A – Population, recent and future growth - Ryan
    • B – Housing - George
    • C – Industry - Kate
    • D – Facilities (utilities) - Ashley
    • E – Transport - MAE
    • F – Environmental issues – SSS
    •  BUILD MAP ON THE BOARD
mapping qol mexico city
Mapping QoL Mexico City
  • Describe Quality of Life
    • How
    • Spatial
    • Solutions
    • (Mexico City animation)
slide14

L

Mexico City

Naucalpan

Ecatepec

Satelite

Low

Medium

Industry

Commerce

Polanco

Aeropuerto

Chapultepec

Insurgentes

Neza

Napoles

Chalco

University

High

Ecatzingo

mexico city review
Mexico City - Review

Zocalo

QOL – Medium

Why? – High pop’n

Density, good employment

Satelite

QOL – Medium

Why? – Good services,

Transport, housing

Ecatapec

QOL – Low

Why? – Industrial sector

Napoles

QOL – Medium

Why? – Green parks,

Commerce and transport

Neza

QOL – Low

Why? – Peripheria, low

Status, no services or

transport

?

QOL – High

Why? – Academia and

Green parks

Chalco

QOL – V Low

Why? – Shanty, no services

and high population

pressures

CIUDADES PERDIDOS

rapid urbanisation ledc
Rapid Urbanisation LEDC
  • H/work – SLIDES?
  • Problems of rapid urbanisation in LEDCs
    • Primate City
    • Infrastructure
    • Quality of life
    • Agricultural decline
    • Increased urbanisation
rapid urbanisation ledc1
Rapid Urbanisation LEDC
  • Problems of rapid urbanisation
    • Economy
    • Economic activity
    • Quality of life (shanty town animation)
    • Water
    • Waste
    • Pollution
    • Planning
    • Video – Brazil Bitesize

Rocinha, Rio, Brazil

rapid urbanisation ledc2
Rapid Urbanisation LEDC
  • Problems - Solutions
  • Team research;
    • A – Population, recent and future growth - Ryan
    • B – Housing - George
    • C – Industry - Kate
    • D – Facilities (utilities) - Ashley
    • E – Transport - MAE
    • F – Environmental issues – SSS
    •  BUILD TABLE ON THE BOARD
rapid urbanisation ledc3
Rapid Urbanisation LEDC

Return

www.habitat.org

mexico city
Mexico City

Clare, Jon, George

  • Housing
    • Western districts are the homes of the upper and middle classes. Land with services in the west and south available for wealthier families. Wealthiest areas are west and southwest e.g. Jardines de San Angel, Las Lomas de Chapultepe, they have large mansions and estancia style homes
    • The INFONAVIT housing agency was set up to build houses. State housing programmes are now self-help schemes on the fringes of the city. Many low income districts are to the east on unserviced land e.g. Aeropuerto and Ramos
    • New houses for middle and upper classes are Naucalpan (NW), Polanco and Napoles
    • Migrants establish themselves in Colonias, low quality housing, on the fringes of the city
mexico city1
Mexico City
  • Population
    • During the 20th Century Mexico’s population and urban growth increased rapidly
    • The population was 13 million by the year 1900. For a lot of the 20th Century the population increased 2% (a year) this resulted in the population being 81 million people by the year 1990 and 97 million by 1997
    • Mexico City is one of the largest and fastest growing cities in the world in terms of size and population growth. By the year 2000 the urban total population could reach 26 million growing by 67% between 1970 and 1980. A further 13% between 1980 and 1994
mexico city2
Mexico City
  • It is estimated that Mexico city has 2.7 million cars on its poor and out of date roads
  • The government have banned people driving on some days of the

week to try and cut air

pollution.

12 000 tonnes of gases produced per day

Environmental

Waste is dumped in open sites, where the wind blows it onto the city

In January 1996 ozone levels past the danger point

Increasing pollution from cars is causing dry season periods to rise

12 000 tonnes of gases produced per day

Open spaces are only found in the rich zones of the city

The ozone levels are only acceptable 20 days of the year

geography as2

Geography AS

Managing Change in Human Environments

Sustainability

urban futures
Urban Futures
  • What will the future hold for urban areas?
    • New Town policy in UK
    • Changing Environments pp 228-232
    • U17 – Purpose of New Towns
    • Video 219 - Stevenage
urban futures1
Urban Futures
  • New Towns
    • Urban sprawl and post-war regeneration
    • New Towns Act 1946
      • Optimum 30-50k
      • Best Town Planning Practice
      • Self contained but influenced by Parent City
      • Most property should be non-profit making organisation
      • Social balance (demographics, socio-economic)
new towns
New Towns
  • 1947 to 1950
    • London
      • Crawley, Hemel Hempstead, Stevenage
  • 1961 to 1970
      • Northampton, Peterborough
      • Milton Keynes (153k), Telford
  • Total – 32 New Towns
      • 2m ppl, 0.5m houses, 50k employers, 1m employees
      • Investment, leisure, recycling, quality of life
  • Drawbacks
      • Greenbelt land; NIMBY; character; community; commuter towns (not self contained); remaining underclass in inner city
re imaging cities
Re-imaging Cities
  • 1990s re-imaged cities
      • E.g. Birmingham
      • Rebuilding, redevelopment, investment, housing, commerce, conventions
      • World City
    • Global New Towns
        • Politics, technology, population pressures, reclaimed land
urban futures2
Urban Futures
  • Activity - http://www.mkweb.co.uk/Housing/displayarticle.asp?ID=6387
    • Notes
      • What solutions have been found through history to generate and regenerate successful urban environments?
      • What were the main aims of New towns?
      • What are the lessons learned from New Towns?
      • What are the pros and cons of city re-imaging?
      • Why was New Town policy finally axed?
sustainable urban environments
Sustainable urban environments
  • Can urban environments be made sustainable?
    • Changing Environments pp 232-239
    • U20 – Sustainable Cities in the 21st Century
    • Homework - Find and describe good examples of local Sustainability policy
sustainable urban environments1
Sustainable urban environments
  • Rio (92), Agenda 21
  • Kyoto (97)
  • Socio-economic policy should not be at the expense of future citizens
    • Avoiding;
      • Decentralisation e.g. sprawl
      • Water e.g. Mexico City
      • Waste e.g. MEDC
      • Underclass
      • Pollution e.g. industrialising countries
sustainable urban environments2
Sustainable urban environments
  • Existing cities; make sustainable
  • Future cities; design sustainability in
  • Sustainability Schemes;
sustainability
Sustainability
  • Compact Cities
    • Multifunctional urban villages
    • Brownfield sites, energy saving, less infrastructure
    • But – Urban density (squalor); business location; fuel conservation via vehicle design
  • Local Sustainability
    • Local Plan
sustainability1

Curitiba's buses carry 50 times more passengers than they did 20 years ago, but people spend only about 10 percent of their yearly income on transport. As a result, despite the second highest per capita car ownership rate in Brazil (one car for every three people), Curitiba's gasoline use per capita is 30 percent below that of eight comparable Brazilian cities. Other results include negligible emissions levels, little congestion, and an extremely pleasant living environment...

Sustainability
  • E.g. Curritiba, S E Brazil
    • 300k to 2.5m over 50 yrs
    • 17 parks and 1.5m trees
    • Wetland wildlife reserves
    • Affordable public transport
    • Pedestrianisation
    • Recycling waste (and incentive programmes)
    • Encourage new in-migrants to return home

EcoCity

http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/fellows/brazil1203/index.html

sustainability2
Sustainability
  • E.g. Sustainability policies
    • Sprawl – Compaction, consolidation
    • Congestion – Quotas, HOV, park and ride, Pedestrianisation, tolls
    • Pollution – Policy, guidelines, ZEV
    • Water – Reduce waste and consumption
    • Waste – Re-use, recycle, prevention

http://www.dismantle.org/cities.htm

sustainable urban environments3
Sustainable urban environments
  • Activity
    • Why is sustainability important?
    • What are the five implications of the concept of sustainability?
    • What does Agenda 21 advocate for realistic sustainability?
    • Give an example of a city implementing sustainable policies
slide39
OWBC Local Plan
  • Homework - LEDC Quality of Life AS Question (5b)
cities activity
Cities Activity
  • Look at the selection of maps from 29 cities worldwide
  • In small teams choose one or two cities
  • Complete the table of information as best you can
  • Team-mark answers from another group
slide42
City name and country
  • Population estimate
  • Closest urban model
  • Main river (if applicable)
  • Main transport types
  • Development category
  • Any obvious urban issues

Burgess, 1920

Ford 1990

Hoyt, 1930

Mann, 1960

Harris & Ullman, 1940

slide43

City

Population

River

Comment

City

Population

River

Comment

Aberdeen

0.2m

Dee/Don

MEDC, Oil

Hamburg

1.7m

MEDC

Adelaide

1m

Murray

MEDC, wine, tourism

Houston

2m

MEDC, oil

Auckland

0.4m

MEDC, tourism

Istanbul

8.8m

MEDC/LEDC, tourism

Austin

0.7m

MEDC, state cap

Kuala Lumpur

1.3m

MEDC/LEDC

Bahrain

0.2m

MEDC, oil

Leeds

0.5m

MEDC

Bangkok

6.3m

LEDC, tourism

Leicester

0.3m

Soar

MEDC

Barcelona

1.6m

MEDC, tourism

London

7m

Thames

MEDC, tourism

Belfast

0.3m

Lagan

MEDC

Mexico City

17.8m

LEDC

Cairo

6.8m

Nile

LEDC, tourism

Northampton

0.2m

MEDC

Calgary

1m

MEDC, oil

Oxford

0.15m

MEDC

Dallas

1.2m

MEDC

Paris

9.6m

Seine

MEDC, tourism

Dhaka

3.6m

Jamuna

LEDC

Perth

1.2m

Swan

MEDC

Dublin

0.5m

Liffey

MEDC

Sydney

3.5m

MEDC, tourism

Faro

0.05m

MEDC, transit

Tehran

6.8m

MEDC/LEDC

urban models
Urban Models
  • Activity
    • Urban Model quiz
    • Run in MS Powerpoint 2003
slide45

1 Land use?

Central Business District (CBD)

2 Land use?

Wholesale and light

industry

Concentric Model

Burgess, 1920s, USA

Low class residential

3 Land use?

4 Land use?

High class residential

slide46

Central Business District (CBD)

1 Land use?

4 Land use?

Wholesale, lightManufacturing

Sector Model

Hoyt, 1930s, USA

5 Land use?

2 Land use?

Low class residential

Medium class residential

6 Land use?

High class residential

3 Land use?

Heavy manufactu-ring