Social influence
Download
1 / 29

Social Influence - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 147 Views
  • Updated On :

Social Influence. Social Influence Outline. I. Conformity II. Motivation III. Minority influence IV. Obedience to authority. Social Influence. How individual behavior is influenced by other people and groups. I. CONFORMITY. I. Conformity:

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Social Influence' - carlton


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Social influence outline l.jpg
Social Influence Outline

  • I. Conformity

  • II. Motivation

  • III. Minority influence

  • IV. Obedience to authority


Social influence3 l.jpg
Social Influence

  • How individual behavior is influenced by other people and groups


I conformity l.jpg
I. CONFORMITY

  • I. Conformity:

    • Tendency to change our behavior/beliefs in ways that are consistent with group norms

  • Norms: Accepted ways of thinking, feeling, behaving

  • Why do we follow norms?

    • Make life easier

    • Rewards for following norms

    • Internalization of norms


Slide6 l.jpg

  • A. Norm of reciprocity

    • When someone provides you with a benefit, it is appropriate for you to return the favor

    • EXAMPLE: Regan (1971)

      • “Coke” study

  • B. Norm of social commitment

    • Keeping our promises and honoring our commitments

  • C. Conforming to group norms

    • Tendency to follow attitudes and behavior of the group


Why do we conform to the group l.jpg
Why do we conform to the group?

  • 1) Informational influence

    • Look to others for information

  • EXAMPLE: Sherif's (1936) autokinetic effect studies


Slide8 l.jpg

It moved about

3.5 inches

Autokinetic effect: the stationary dot of light will seem to move


Slide9 l.jpg

Looks like 1 inch

I’d say 2 inches

7.5 inches

What if people make their judgments with others, and state estimates aloud?


Slide10 l.jpg

Person A

Convergence

Person B

Person C

Average distance

estimates

Alone

Group

Session 1

Group

Session 2

Group

Session 3

Conformity!

Initially, they differ; but over trials, they converge


Why do we conform to the group11 l.jpg
Why do we conform to the group?

  • "Do as most do, and [people] will speak well of thee"

    -Thomas Fuller

  • 2) Normative influence

    • We want to be liked, accepted and to fit in

      • We don’t want to look foolish

    • EXAMPLE:

      • Asch’s (1950s) conformity studies


Slide12 l.jpg

Asch's (1955) conformity studies

1 2 3

Standard Line

Comparison Lines

Trial 1


Slide13 l.jpg

Asch's (1955) conformity studies

1 2 3

Standard Line

Comparison Lines

Trial 2


Slide14 l.jpg

Asch's (1955) conformity studies

1 2 3

Standard Line

Comparison Lines

Trial 3


Asch s 1950s conformity studies l.jpg

Procedures:

One subject, six or more confederates

Which line is the same length as the standard?

People reported answers out loud, one at a time

Subject always last

On 12 of 18 trials, confederates answered incorrectly

Results:

Asch’s (1950s) conformity studies


The majority is powerful but what about l.jpg

Galileo

Susan B Anthony & Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Martin Luther King Jr.

The majority is powerful…but what about...


Majority and minority influence l.jpg
Majority and Minority Influence

  • Majority influence:

    • Larger group influences smaller subgroup or individuals

  • Minority influence:

    • The individual or smaller group influences the larger group


Moscovici minority influence l.jpg
Moscovici & Minority Influence

  • Reversing the traditional Asch situation

  • Majority of SS and minority of confederates

  • Example study:

    • Showed SS blue slides

    • Confederates argue slides are green

    • Final judgements: 8.4% shifted judgements


Factors affecting minority influence l.jpg
Factors Affecting Minority Influence

  • Consistency

  • Investment

  • Self-interest

  • Ingroup vs outgroup members

  • Flexibility and consistency


Minority influence and status l.jpg
Minority Influence and Status

  • Is early conformity important?

    • It may earn some ‘status’ with group members

  • Hollander’s studies on early conformity

    • 5 person groups; complex decisional task

    • Confederate demonstrated early conformity or not

    • Confederate showed nonconformity

    • Results:

      • Minority influence increased over time

      • Minority influence greater for early conformists


Theory of idiosyncrasy credits hollander l.jpg
Theory of Idiosyncrasy Credits (Hollander)

  • To dissent effectively, you must first earn the right by paying conformity dues called idiosyncrasy credits.

  • High status have more idiosyncrasy credits than low status


Reconciling hollander and moscovici l.jpg
Reconciling Hollander and Moscovici

  • Different viewpoints:

  • Hollander: early conformity is good

  • Moscovici: consistent nonconformity is important


Compliance versus conversion l.jpg
Compliance versus Conversion

  • Majority influence:

    • Compliance (direct influence)

  • Minority influence:

    • Conversion (indirect influence)


Example study nemeth wachtler 1974 l.jpg
Example study (Nemeth & Wachtler, 1974)

  • 5 person groups

  • Make award in personal injury case

  • Confederate argued for low award

  • Results:

    • Direct influence:

      • Final vote: majority unchanged- gave big award

    • Indirect influence:

      • On second case gave significantly smaller awards


Obedience l.jpg
Obedience

  • Willingness to obey “legitimate” authority

  • Example: Milgram obedience studies

  • Procedures:

    • ‘Teacher’ & ‘Student’: learn word pairs

    • ‘Teacher’ required to administer shock to ‘learner’ for errors


The milgram experiments results l.jpg
The Milgram Experiments:Results

  • Over 60% punished learners with the highest shock intensity (450 volts)


Peer teaching of motivation theories l.jpg
Peer Teaching of Motivation Theories

  • Assignment:

    • Each group is responsible for teaching the theory to the class and demonstrating the link to leadership

    • Some sort of visual aid is required

  • Group 1: Need theories

  • Group 2: Equity theory

  • Group 3: Expectancy theory

  • Group 4: ‘Work Design’ theories (Herzberg and Job characteristics model)

  • Group 5: Operant theory


Assignment 4 l.jpg
Assignment # 4

  • Carry out your own conformity study.

  • Type up a 1 page description of your study and your observations.

  • Be sure to indicate how your observations relate to material discussed in the course.