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Social Influence

Social Influence

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Social Influence

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  1. Social Influence

  2. Reference Group • A set of people • Whom individuals compare themselves to • Guiding attitudes, knowledge and /or behavior

  3. Types of Reference Groups • Associative • Aspirational • Dissociative • Marketers • Identify and appropriately represent target consumers • Associate product with aspirational group

  4. Aspects of Reference Groups • Degree of contact • Primary • Secondary • Formality • Structure • Ad hoc

  5. Aspects of Reference Groups 2 • Homophily • Similarity • Density • Know each other • Individual characteristics • Degree of identification • Tie-strength

  6. Aspects of Reference GroupsMarketing Implications • Type of group to target • How to target a group • Target grop or individual • Weak ties • Serve as bridge between 2 groups

  7. Consumer Socialization • Direct teaching • Observation • Reward / Punishment • Reference groups change over time

  8. Sources of Influence • Marketer / Mass Media • Marketer / Personal • Nonmarketer / Mass media • Nonmarketer / Personal

  9. Characteristics of Influence Sources • Reach • 2 way flow of communication • Credibility • WOM

  10. Opinion Leaders • Info broker between mass media and a group • In one specific domain • Characteristics • A lot of product knowledge • Heavy users of media • Buy new products • Credible no vested interest

  11. Normative Influences • Social pressure to encourage compliance with others’ expectations • Norms • Collective decisions about what should be • Rewards and punishments

  12. Normative Influence Process • Conformity • Tendency to behave as group wishes • Varies by culture, or so we think • Brand choice congruence • Likelihood consumers will buy what others in their group buy

  13. Normative Influence Process 2 • Compliance • Agreement • Reactance • Boomerang effect

  14. Product Characteristics and Normative Influence • Reference groups influence • Whether we buy a product • What brand we buy • Public / private product? • Necessity / luxury

  15. Consumer and Normative Influence • Susceptibility • Some consumers are more influenced by social pressure • Attention to social comparison info • Pay attention to what others are doing • Strength of ties

  16. The Group and Normative Influence • Coercive power • Cohesiveness / similarity • Group members are experts

  17. Marketing Strategy and Normative Influence • Foot-in-the-door technique • From small to large • Door-in-the-face technique • From large to small • Even-a-penny will help • charity • Norm of reciprocity • A dollar as a thanks

  18. Symbolic Consumption • Emblems • Role Acquisition • Connectedness • Expressiveness

  19. Special Possessions • Mementos • Achievement • Collections • Ceremonial symbolic function

  20. Discussion Questions • Ned enjoyed being with his body piercing friends and he did so himself. Ping hated these people and hated body piercing. Explain the reference group relations in this example. • Can some reference groups have a greater impact than others? Why or why not? • How do marketers make use of norms to sell. • Do all possessions have a utilitarian use? Explain.