Signed between Spain and Portugal • June 7, 1494 • Ratified by Spain July 2nd. • Agreed to by Portugal on September 5th. • Designed to divide the world outside Europe. • Intended to resolve disputes between the two powers when Columbus returned in 1493. • Talks were conducted because of a papal decree. Who and Why?
Meridian: A line of longitude running north-south through the poles and measured east to west. • Statute mile (Our mile): 5,280 feet. • Nautical mile: 6,076 feet. About 15% longer than a mile. • League: 3 nautical miles. • Bull: A decree or order issued by the Pope. Terms to know
1481: the papal Bull Aeterni Regis granted all land south of the Canary Islands to Portugal. • When Columbus returned in 1493 he told the Pope what he had found. • The Spanish-born Pope Alexander VI changed the decree in May 1493. Background
All lands west of a meridian 100 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands would belong to Spain. ( 345 miles). • All discovered lands east of the line would belong to Portugal. • All territory currently under Christian rule would remain untouched. Papal Bull Inter Caetera by Pope Alexander VI
King John of Portugal was not happy! • Wanted the line moved west. • Told Spain that since it would go all the way around the world, it would limit Spanish control in Asia. • King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella agreed. • Their treaty countered the papal Bull • Uncontested by Pope Alexander VI • Sanctioned by Pope Julius II in a new Bull in 1506. Time to Negotiate
Moved the line to a position 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands (1,277 miles). • Portugal gained a larger portion of South America: Brazil. • Spain gained control (on paper) of most of the New World. Terms of the Treaty
No one really knew where the boundary line was because: • Didn’t know which side of the Cape Verde Islands they were to measure from, east or west? (difference of 193 miles). • Was it Cape Verde or Capo Verde on Africa’s western coast? • Measurement of a league was different in different countries. • Portuguese maritime leagues were different from Portuguese land leagues! • Portuguese leagues were different from Spanish, French, and English leagues! • Old leagues were different from New leagues in Portugal! And we thought we had problems!
Portugal discovers Brazil by accident in 1500. Cabral • The line wasn’t enforced by the Spanish so the Portuguese encroached deep into South America. • France, England, and the Netherlands were refused access. After the Treaty
Francis I of France wanted the Pope to show him “The clause in Adam’s will excluding his authority from the New World.” • Initially, the only option left to France, England, and the Netherlands was piracy. • Later, these countries rejected the Pope’s authority. • Magellan’s voyage around the globe spurred a new problem: Where should the line be on the other side of the world? Disputes
Both Portugal and Spain claimed the Moluccas Islands. It was an important source of spices, especially CLOVES. • The new treaty established a new line • 297.5 leagues (1020 miles) east of the Moluccas. • Spain received money in compensation. • Portugal gained control of all lands west of the line. • All of Asia • All neighboring islands • The Philippines • Spain “got” the Pacific Ocean. Treaty of Saragossa 1529
Spain wanted the Philippines back. • 1542, King Charles V decided to take them. • Figured Portugal wouldn’t care because there was no spice. • He was wrong! • 1565, King Philip II succeeded in taking them back from Portugal (until 1898 when the USA grabbed them). • Most of South America • Mexico, Central America and large portions of the present-day southern and western US. • Portugal’s holdings • Brazil • Moluccas • Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, and Sao Tome and Principe in Africa. • Goa and Daman and Diu in India • East Timor and Macau in the Far East. Spain and Portugal: The final tally