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Treaty of Tordesillas
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Treaty of Tordesillas

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  1. Treaty of Tordesillas

  2. Signed between Spain and Portugal • June 7, 1494 • Ratified by Spain July 2nd. • Agreed to by Portugal on September 5th. • Designed to divide the world outside Europe. • Intended to resolve disputes between the two powers when Columbus returned in 1493. • Talks were conducted because of a papal decree. Who and Why?

  3. Meridian: A line of longitude running north-south through the poles and measured east to west. • Statute mile (Our mile): 5,280 feet. • Nautical mile: 6,076 feet. About 15% longer than a mile. • League: 3 nautical miles. • Bull: A decree or order issued by the Pope. Terms to know

  4. 1481: the papal Bull Aeterni Regis granted all land south of the Canary Islands to Portugal. • When Columbus returned in 1493 he told the Pope what he had found. • The Spanish-born Pope Alexander VI changed the decree in May 1493. Background

  5. All lands west of a meridian 100 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands would belong to Spain. ( 345 miles). • All discovered lands east of the line would belong to Portugal. • All territory currently under Christian rule would remain untouched. Papal Bull Inter Caetera by Pope Alexander VI

  6. King John of Portugal was not happy! • Wanted the line moved west. • Told Spain that since it would go all the way around the world, it would limit Spanish control in Asia. • King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella agreed. • Their treaty countered the papal Bull • Uncontested by Pope Alexander VI • Sanctioned by Pope Julius II in a new Bull in 1506. Time to Negotiate

  7. Moved the line to a position 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands (1,277 miles). • Portugal gained a larger portion of South America: Brazil. • Spain gained control (on paper) of most of the New World. Terms of the Treaty

  8. No one really knew where the boundary line was because: • Didn’t know which side of the Cape Verde Islands they were to measure from, east or west? (difference of 193 miles). • Was it Cape Verde or Capo Verde on Africa’s western coast? • Measurement of a league was different in different countries. • Portuguese maritime leagues were different from Portuguese land leagues! • Portuguese leagues were different from Spanish, French, and English leagues! • Old leagues were different from New leagues in Portugal! And we thought we had problems!

  9. Portugal discovers Brazil by accident in 1500. Cabral • The line wasn’t enforced by the Spanish so the Portuguese encroached deep into South America. • France, England, and the Netherlands were refused access. After the Treaty

  10. Francis I of France wanted the Pope to show him “The clause in Adam’s will excluding his authority from the New World.” • Initially, the only option left to France, England, and the Netherlands was piracy. • Later, these countries rejected the Pope’s authority. • Magellan’s voyage around the globe spurred a new problem: Where should the line be on the other side of the world? Disputes

  11. Both Portugal and Spain claimed the Moluccas Islands. It was an important source of spices, especially CLOVES. • The new treaty established a new line • 297.5 leagues (1020 miles) east of the Moluccas. • Spain received money in compensation. • Portugal gained control of all lands west of the line. • All of Asia • All neighboring islands • The Philippines • Spain “got” the Pacific Ocean. Treaty of Saragossa 1529

  12. A view of the Treaties

  13. Spain wanted the Philippines back. • 1542, King Charles V decided to take them. • Figured Portugal wouldn’t care because there was no spice. • He was wrong! • 1565, King Philip II succeeded in taking them back from Portugal (until 1898 when the USA grabbed them). • Most of South America • Mexico, Central America and large portions of the present-day southern and western US. • Portugal’s holdings • Brazil • Moluccas • Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, and Sao Tome and Principe in Africa. • Goa and Daman and Diu in India • East Timor and Macau in the Far East. Spain and Portugal: The final tally

  14. QUESTIONS????????