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Roman Empire and Han China. How did Rome establish a Republic?. I. Social Class Patricians- aristocrats, landowners, senators, MOST POWER Plebeians- common people/ had little say in gov’t II Republic Landowners and aristocrats had the power, they made up the Senate III Law Code

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How did rome establish a republic
How did Rome establish a Republic?

I. Social Class

  • Patricians- aristocrats, landowners, senators, MOST POWER

  • Plebeians- common people/ had little say in gov’t

    II Republic

    • Landowners and aristocrats had the power, they made up the Senate

      III Law Code

  • Twelve Tables of Rome: system of laws created to organize prosecution for crimes and trials

  • innocent until proven guilty; defendants may confront accusers in court; judges can nullify unjust laws


  • Superior discipline, high values, courage

  • Roman Legion 3000-6000 men used phalanx


  • Between 509-264 conquered all of Italy

  • Legion 5000 soldiers did not get paid, supplied their own weapons

  • Hegemony: which is authority over or dominance of a group of people

  • Trade: extensive trade in Mediterranean and with the East along the Silk Roads in the Middle East

    VI. Causes for the Punic Wars

  • 264-146 BCE

  • Carthage was a trading outpost in North Africa

  • Rome and Carthage both wanted control of the Mediterranean

  • Result in Punic wars- Rome succeeds in all 3

How did rome become an imperial power
How did Rome become an imperial power?

I. Punic Wars, City of Corinth in Greece and

  • Siege of Jerusalem

  • 63 BCE Jerusalem becomes a Roman province

  • Zealots- Jews that Rebelled against Romans

  • Jews flee causing a Diaspora- the dispersion of Jews outside the land of Israel.

    II End of the Republic

  • Conquests brought money  corruption

  • Poor and farmers had no land

  • Gap between rich and poor

  • V Triumvirate- 3 seat govt.

  • VI Julius Caesar

  • beginning of transition from Republic to Empire

  • assassinatedin 44 B.C.E

What role did emperors play in rome
What role did emperors play in Rome?

  • I. Augustus (son of Julius Caesar)

  • 27 BCE: becomes Emperor, beginning of PaxRomana

  • Massive public works bridges, roads, aqueducts

  • Increased work and developed army

  • New coinage system

  • Police and fire protection

  • Status of women rose

  • Entertainment- Coliseum gladiators and games

  • Bread and circuses to feed and entertain the people of Rome

  • Expanded his empire

  • Augustus worshipped as a god.

  • 14 CE dies and Rome had no laws of succession

  • II. PaxRomana

    • 200 years of peace

    • Government- ruled by an emperor

    • Laws- Twelve Tables governed the empire

    • Language (Latin)- The Roman alphabet (basis for western alphabet)

    • Engineering Technology: public works, aqueducts, roads, bridges; architecture such as the coliseum, roman arches

    • Literature- Literature- Virgil, Horace, Tactitus and Livy wrote poetry and histories of Rome

  • Religion- Jesus Christ founded a new religion called Christianity

  • III. Julian Emperors

  • Tiberius-introvert

  • Caligula-sexual deviant

  • Claudius-clumsy

  • Nero-Insane

  • IV. Third century crisis

  • 50 yrsof civil war

  • Empire is on the verge of collapsing

What brought the fall of rome
What brought the fall of Rome?

  • I. Politically

  • 235-284 CE there were 22 different emperors

  • Invasions, civil war and plague

  • The Germanic soldiers

  • dependence on slave labor led to a decline in trade

  • II. Economically

  • Trade declined

  • High taxes

  • Economy collapses

  • Coinage devalued

  • Labor shortage

  • Inflation

  • III. Socially

  • Town life declined, religiously divided

  • poverty gap, especially with regards to land ownership

  • People are lazy and unpatriotic

  • Learning declined

How did christianity impact the roman empire
How did Christianity impact the Roman Empire?

I. Jesus- 33 years old Crucified for his beliefs

II. Paul aka Saul of Tarsus

  • Missionary after Jesus’ death

  • Converted Jews to Christianity

  • Spread Christianity

  • Laid the foundations for church and sacraments

  • Gospel- New Testament are accounts of his life teachings

  • III Appeal

  • 3rd century was the age of anxiety

  • Christianity offered hope, comfort and solace

  • Salvation for both men and women

  • IV Jews

  • 132 CE Jews rebelled again

  • They were dispersed, second Diaspora: exiling of Jews from Palestine in 136 AD by the Roman Empire

  • V Persecution

  • Nero 64 CE

  • Anti-Christian laws

  • Emperor Constantine made Christianity tolerable (Edict of Milan)

  • Theodosius made Christianity the empires religion

How were the roman empire and han dynasty in china similar
How were the Roman Empire and Han Dynasty in China similar?

  • I. Qin Dynasty

  • Replaced the Zhou Dynasty 221 BCE

  • reunited China

  • centralized gov’t with a bureaucracy

  • Became Legalists

  • Early stages of the Great Wall of China (1,400 Miles)

  • II. Han Dynasty

  • 206 BCE- 220 CE

  • Liu Bang founded the Han

  • Strong central government with bureaucracy

  • expanded territory south and west (central Asia, Korea, Indochina)

  • Allowed civil service exams: pick officials by merit

  • PaxSinica = Chinese period of peace

  • Shi: scholar class, promoted education

  • Han Wudi created an even larger empire

  • Technology increased, iron, paper, ships, acupuncture, canals, water power and compass

  • Confucianism became the basis for Han gov’t

  • civil service examinations: gov’t employees became more qualified

  • Confucianism preserved patriarchal social structures/gender roles

  • III. Silk Road

  • Linked Asia, Europe and India

  • Middlemen were the Greeks and the Jews

  • Religion spreads: Buddhism into China, Christianity to Europe

  • Disease spread along Silk Road

  • IV. Decline

  • Land unequally divided between rich and poor

  • Han surrounded by barbarians

  • Han dynasty paid them tribute

  • Weak economy

  • Trade declined

  • Peasant revolts

  • Invasions led to a collapse in 220 CE

  • Led to 400 years of turmoil and division of the empire