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Chapter 43. Anatomy of the Urinary System. Functions of the kidney. Excretory Keeps the electrolyte balance Keeps the acid-base balance Keeps the water balance. Gross anatomy . Kidney The right kidney is in a lower position than the left.

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chapter 43

Chapter 43

Anatomy of the Urinary System

functions of the kidney
Functions of the kidney
  • Excretory
  • Keeps the electrolyte balance
  • Keeps the acid-base balance
  • Keeps the water balance
gross anatomy
Gross anatomy
  • Kidney
  • The right kidney is in a lower position than the left.
  • Located at the superior lumbar region of the dorsal body wall
  • Hilus
    • Renal artery, vein and ureter
gross anatomy1
Gross anatomy
  • Capsules
  • They hold the kidney in place and also protect them
    • Adipose capsule
    • Fibrous capsule
gross anatomy2
Gross anatomy
  • Cortex
    • Superficial kidney region immediate bellow the capsule
    • Light color
  • Medulla
    • Darker color
    • Deep to the cortex
gross anatomy3
Gross anatomy
    • Medullary pyramids
      • Base
      • Papilla or apex
  • Renal columns
    • Cortical tissue between the pyramids
  • Minor calyces
  • Major calyces
gross anatomy4
Gross anatomy
  • Renal pelvis
    • Cavity formed by the joining of the major calyces and is continuous with the ureter
  • Blood flow to the kidneys
    • Aorta
    • Renal arteries
    • Segmental arteries (5 branches)
    • Interlobar arteries
gross anatomy5
Gross anatomy
  • Arcuate arteries
  • Interlobular arteries
  • Afferent arterioles
    • Supply the nephron
  • Glomerulus (capillaries)
  • Efferent arterioles
gross anatomy6
Gross anatomy
  • Peritubular capillaries
  • Interlobular veins
  • Arcuate veins
  • Interlobar veins
  • Renal veins
  • Inferior vena cava
    • There is no segmental veins
gross anatomy7
Gross anatomy
  • Ureters
    • Drain urine from the kidney to thebladder
  • Bladder
    • Trigone
      • 2 ureteral orifices
      • 1 urethral orifice
gross anatomy8
Gross anatomy
    • Detrusor muscle
    • Rugae
  • Parietal peritoneum
gross anatomy9
Gross anatomy
  • Urethra
    • Drains urine from the bladder
    • Males
      • Belongs to the urinary and reproductive systems
      • Prostatic, membranous, penile or spongy
    • Female
      • Belong to the urinary system only
gross anatomy10
Gross anatomy
  • Internal urethral sphincter
    • Smooth muscle
    • Superior to the external one
  • External urethral sphincter
    • Skeletal muscle
    • Inferior to the internal one
microscopic anatomy of the kidney
Microscopic anatomy of the kidney
  • Nephrons
    • Functional unit of the kidneys
    • Formed by:

1) Glomerulus

      • Glomerular capsule or Bowman’s capsule
        • Visceral layer with podocytes cells that interdigitate with each other and cling to the endothelial cells. Pedicels
microscopic anatomy of the kidney1
Microscopic anatomy of the kidney
    • Capsular space
    • Parietal layer
  • Renal corpuscle
    • Glomerulus + Bowman's capsule

2) Renal tubules

  • Proximal convoluted tubules (PCT)
    • Simple cuboidal epithelium with microvilli
microscopic anatomy of the kidney2
Microscopic anatomy of the kidney
  • Loop of Henle
    • Descending loop
      • Thick filament
      • Thin filament with simple squamous epithelium and small number of microvilli
microscopic anatomy of the kidney3
Microscopic anatomy of the kidney
    • Ascending loop
      • Thick filament
      • Thin filament - simple squamous epithelium
  • Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
    • Simple cuboidal epithelium
microscopic anatomy of the kidney4
Microscopic anatomy of the kidney
  • Collecting ducts
    • Receives urine from many nephrons
    • Run through the medullary pyramids
  • Papillary ducts
    • Collect urine from the collecting ducts
    • Empty the urine into the minor calyces
microscopic anatomy of the kidney5
Microscopic anatomy of the kidney
  • Types of nephrons
    • Cortical
      • Located within the renal cortex
    • Juxtamedullary
      • Locted at the cortex-medulla junction
      • Loops of Henle penetrate the medulla
microscopic anatomy of the kidney6
Microscopic anatomy of the kidney
  • Renal circulation for the nephron
    • Glomerular capillaries
      • It produces the filtrate
      • It is a high hydrostatic pressure capillary bed because:
        • It is fed by 2 arterioles
        • The afferent arterioles is larger than the efferent
microscopic anatomy of the kidney7
Microscopic anatomy of the kidney
  • Peritubular capillary bed
    • Low pressure capillaries
    • Porous walls
    • Absorbs contents of the filtrate
microscopic anatomy of the kidney8
Microscopic anatomy of the kidney
  • In the cortical nephrons the efferent arterioles will form the peritubular capillaries. From there the blood will flow to the vein system
microscopic anatomy of the kidney9
Microscopic anatomy of the kidney
  • In the juxtamedullary nephrons, the peritubular capillaries descend immediately into the medulla and give rise to the vasa recta. They run parallel to the loop of Henle and from there the blood will flow to the vein system
microscopic anatomy of the kidney10
Microscopic anatomy of the kidney
  • Juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA)
    • Macula densa
      • Specialized epithelial cells of the DCT
    • Juxtaglomerular cells
      • Specialized smooth muscle cells of the wall of the arterioles
urine formation
Urine formation
  • Filtration
    • Filtrate is forming by the passage of fluid from the afferent arteriole to the Bowman’s capsule
  • Reabsorption
    • Occurs mainly in the PCT
    • It is passive for water
    • It is active for many substances
urine formation1
Urine formation
  • Secretion
    • Substances pass from the tubular cells or from the blood to the tubular lumen
    • It happens mainly on the DCT
  • For urine storage
  • Micturition or voiding
  • Mechanism of micturition
    • Urine is collected until it reaches 200 ml
    • Stretching of the bladder wall
    • Activation of the stretching receptors
    • Impulse is sent through the parasympathetic fibers
  • Impulse reaches the CNS
  • CNS sends motor command for the bladder to contract
  • Relaxation of the internal sphincter
  • Urine passes to the posterior portion of the urethra
  • Voiding or not (voluntary action)
  • Incontinence
    • Lack of voluntary control of the external urethral sphincter
  • Microscopy
    • Transitional epithelium
    • Detrusor muscle
      • Inner longitudinal layer
      • Central circular layer
      • Outer longitudinal layer
kidney dissection
Kidney dissection
  • Whole kidney
    • Hylus
    • Capsule: fibrous and fat
kidney dissection1
Kidney dissection
  • Frontal cut
    • Cortex
    • Medulla
      • Pyramids
        • Papilla
    • Columns
    • Calyces: major, minor
    • Pelvis
cat dissection
Cat Dissection
  • Urinary System
  • Kidneys
  • Ureters
  • Bladder
  • Urethra