An Introductionto the Incident Management System
IMS Course Overview 1. Introduction to the IMS Course 11. Fire Confinement & Extinguishment 2. Introduction to the IMS & the Incident Commander 12. Salvage 13. Overhaul 3. The Command Structure 14.Size-Up & Exposure Protection 15.Accountability&EntryControl 4. Risk Management 16. Rehabilitation 5. Apparatus Placement 17. Post Incident Analysis & Review 6. Water Supply 18. Personnel Accountability Reports 7. Forcible Entry 19. Evacuation & R.I.T. 8. Ventilation 9. Rescue 20. Fire Ground Scenarios 10. Victim Stabilization & Removal Appendices & Miscellaneous Exit Ice Breakers!
End of Section Mouse Warning! Ensure that the mouse “hand” is visible on this screen in order to return to the proper location in the slideshow.
1. Introduction to the IMS Course Welcome! Introductions
2. Introduction to the IMS & the Incident Commander (LG-3) Prior to the Incident Command and the IMS fire departments had a LOT of good luck. Examples… (flipchart)
Why do we have an IMS? • One person command • Too many cooks spoil the broth! • IC’s may change, but always, only ONE person in • charge • Ensures that a strong command is visible • Lawsuits often center around this • Establishes an effective organization • Effectiveness & efficiency are operative words • Provides a system for processing information • IC, even at a simple house fire, can be overloaded • with information • Allows for an orderly Transfer of Command • A formal process (will be dealt with later) • Ensures the maximum level of firefighter safety • We are NUMBER 1
The Incident Commander What are the traits of a good Incident Commander? (Flipchart) Let’s now take a look at the profile of a good IC…
Profile of an Effective IC • Implements effective action/continual focus on standard outcomes • Technically competent/street smart • Disciplined and consistent/flexible and responsive • High consciousness and awareness level/good intuition • Strong tactical focus/manages distractions and stress effectively
Profile of an Effective IC (cont’d) • Psychologically stable/cool head • Risk/safety manager -- always reflects concern for personnel & customers • Information manager/quick decider/organized and logical thinker • Straight forward communicator – talks clearly & listens critically • Command competent: system activator – SOP manager
Profile of an Effective IC (cont’d) • Focus on function/strong ego control • Strong delegator (continually assists/coaches subordinates) • Develops, uses and escalates organizational elements to fit situation • Invents creative and innovative solutions • Maintains effective command presence
Primary Responsibilities What is the primary responsibility of the IC? (Flipchart) 1. To ensure that the Tactical Priorities are met.
What are the Tactical Priorities? (Flipchart) • Rescue • Stabilize the scene i.e. extinguishment etc. • Property Conservation • Firefighter Safety – CORE VALUE! Is Firefighter Safety a “priority” or a “core value?”
FIREFIGHTER SAFETY AS A CORE VALUE • Every decision is filtered through the following question: • What affect will this have on firefighter safety? • If the action enhances or has no affect, continue • If the action puts the firefighters in more jeopardy, apply the risk benefit analysis
Risk/Benefit Analysis • Is there a worthwhile benefit to be gained? • Is it likely to succeed? • How can the risk be minimized? • Fewest possible firefighters exposed • Limit exposure • Rescue plan for firefighters • Back-up rescue plan for firefighters
Reporting Benchmarks It is critical to understand the use and importance of “Benchmarks” in the Incident Management System. We may accomplish the tactical priorities out of order but that doesn’t change the way we rank their importance. As a result, the following benchmarks are always reported in the following order: • Primary Search – All Clear • Under Control (meaning, fire) • Secondary Search – All Clear • Loss Stopped (meaning, no more damage)
Functions of Command What does the IC have to do on arrival & while on scene? • Assume command and announce it!!! • Do an initial size-up • Set up a Command Post and announce it!!! • Initiate and control communications • Determine strategy and develop the Action Plan • assign companies • Develop an effective Incident Management organization • Provide the Tactical Priorities • Provide continuity in Transfer and Termination of Command
Who Takes Initial Command? Time for Quiz #1! (Page 7) Usually the first arriving Officer (follow SOG’s) - this may not be an Officer in a volunteer dept. Whoever it is it is imperative that communications knows who and where Radio Reports: (to be discussed later)
3. The Command Structure (LG-8) The beauty of an IMS is that it is versatile: anything from a dumpster fire to a complex fire in a high rise can be handled. Each incident should be approached in a systematic, effective manner. The term “Command Structure” simply means how we set up a command system at a fire that suits the size and complexity of the incident.
Levels of Command Whatever the incident, there are always 3 levels of command… • Strategic • Tactical • Task
Strategic What does the term “strategy” mean to you? According to the Oxford Dictionary “strategy” means… Generalship, the art of war, management of an army or armies in a campaign, art of so moving or disposing troops or ships or aircraft as to impose upon the enemy the place and time and conditions for fighting preferred by oneself; instance of or plan formed to according to; this, hence - Generalship This is where the “Big Plan” is put together…
Strategic Approaches At the Strategic level, there are 3 terms that are indicative of the IC’s overall approach to the incident. They are… Offensive – Aggressive, usually interior, fire attack that is intended to stop the fire at its current location. As a general rule, the IC should extend an offensive attack only where and when conditions permit, and adequate resources are available. Defensive – Exterior fire attack with emphasis on exposure protection. The commitment of a fire department’s resources to protect exposures when the fire has progressed to a point where an offensive attack is not effective. Marginal – Many times offensive/defensive conditions are clear cut and Command can quickly determine the appropriate strategy. In other cases, the situation is MARGINAL and Command must initiate an offensive interior attack, while setting up defensive positions on the exterior. Source: http://phoenix.gov/FIRE/20202b.html
Strategic Integration The 3 terms discussed in the previous slide – Offensive, Defensive & Marginal are reflective of a “risk/benefit” analysis that ultimately drives the incident Action Plan. This Action Plan must be formulated within a structured risk management plan. Source: http://phoenix.gov/FIRE/20202b.html
Tactical What does the term “tactical” mean to you? Operational objectives are assigned at this level. Objectives have to accomplish the Strategy.
Task What does the term “task” mean to you? This is where the job or work gets done. Now, let’s look at some of the responsibilities we could find at each level…
Responsibilities at Each Level of a Scene 2 Story Detached Dwelling Pump 3 Garage Pump 1 Rescue 1 Chief Pump 2 D/Chief This incident can be divided into the Three Levels of Command. An Action Plan can be developed that includes strategic and tactical objectives along with support activities that bring this incident to a successful completion.
Strategic Responsibilities 2 Story Detached Dwelling Pump 3 Garage Pump 1 Rescue 1 Chief Pump 2 D/Chief Strategic Level Develop Action Plan: determine strategy & overall incident objectives; set priorities; obtain & assign resources; predict outcomes and planning; assign specific objectives to the Tactical Level
Tactical Responsibilities 2 Story Detached Dwelling Pump 3 Garage Pump 1 Rescue 1 Chief Pump 2 D/Chief Tactical Level Direct activities toward specific objectives: responsible for geographic “areas” or functions; has responsibility & authority to meet strategic goals
Task Responsibilities 2 Story Detached Dwelling Pump 3 Garage Pump 1 Rescue 1 Chief Pump 2 D/Chief Task Level Individual companies – “where the rubber meets the road”: usually commanded by a company Officer; goal is to accomplish tactical objectives Any Questions to this Point???
Sectoring What does the term “sectoring” mean to you? Why would we use sectoring and what are the types? Types: Geographical Function
Geographical Sectoring Often used in conjunction with locations around a structure. Alfa – Bravo – Charlie – Delta If the Alpha side is not readily apparent, the IC must designate. E.g. a building has addresses on two streets.
GEOGRAPHIC SECTORING OH#1 C (3) HOUSE GARAGE D (4) B (2) A (1) STREET
Function Sectoring Identities are assigned based on the task. Can be termed as follows: Search & Rescue Team 1 Suppression Team 1 Ventilation 1 Water Supply What are some advantages or disadvantages of geographical or functional sectoring?
Command Organization How does all of this look organizationally? Should there not be differences between small, medium and large scale incidents? “Span of Control” criterion: once over 3-5 FF’s In fact, there are differences…but, some important similarities as well. (See page 11 of the Learner Guide… and the next slide…)
OH #2 LEVELS OF COMMAND IN ALL THREE EXAMPLES WHO IS STRATEGIC, TACTICAL AND TASK OFFICER? EXAMPLE #1 P1 CO P1 CO EXAMPLE #2 CO CO P2 R1 EXAMPLE #3 IC CHIEF DISTRICT CHIEF DISTRICT CHIEF VENTILATION SECTOR FIRE CONTROL SECTOR R1 P2 P3 A1 CO’S CO’S
Establishing Command Usually the first arriving Officer stays in Command until a transfer or the scene is stabilized. Question… (hmmm…) The first on-scene Officer has been in control of an incident since the start. He/she is doing a good job. A more senior Officer arrives at the scene but chooses not to assume Command because the first Officer is doing well. Who is responsible for the fire? What are your thoughts? Remember, You can share authority, NOT responsibility!
Initial Radio Reports • The initial radio report is very important. It starts the incident off on the right foot. • Vehicle designation – “P-31 Arrived” • Address – “20 Spruce St.” • Building type – “2-story residential brick structure” • Obvious conditions – “smoke showing at front” • Initial actions taken – “have established water supply and beginning primary search” • Declaration of Strategy “commencing Offensive Attack” • Obvious safety concerns – “heavy traffic, need police” • Assume command & give location – “Capt. Sparky establishing Command, Alfa-Delta side” • Request or release resources – “Control, Spruce Command. Dispatch EMS to this location”
Command Modes There are 3 possible Command Modes upon arrival: • Nothing Showing Mode • Fast Attack Mode • Command Mode
Nothing Showing Mode … also known as “Investigative Mode” What are some features of this mode? • Take crew, portable radio and check out the situation • Stage additional arriving apparatus
Fast Attack Mode “What you do in the first 5 minutes often determines what you will be doing for the next 5 hours.” - Brunacini What are some features of this mode? • Situations where immediate action is required • Retain radio and maintain Command • Should not last longer than a few minutes – you cannot maintain Command from inside a structure
When do we use Fast Attack Mode? • Critical life safety situations… rescue • Offensive attack in “marginal” situations • Any incident where FF safety or welfare are of concern • Obvious working situations that require further investigation by the Officer • When does Fast Attack Mode end? • Situation is stabilized • The situation is NOT stabilized and the IC must withdraw to establish a Command Post, crew may be withdrawn also, especially if they have no radios • Command is transferred to a more senior Officer
Command Mode What kind of incidents would require establishing Command Mode immediately? • Situations that are obviously large from the outset • IC establishes a Command Post immediately • A “Tactical Worksheet” is activated at this point! Look at the OFM TACTICAL WORKSHEET found under Appendix “F” in your Learner manual.
Command Options for the IC What are some of the options available to the IC at the point Command Mode is established? • Assign the remainder of the crew to carry out tasks – appoint one of the crew as the acting Company Officer – provide the crew with radios • Assign the crew to work under the supervision of another arriving Company Officer • Assign the crew to staff positions to assist Command
Passing Command What is passing Command? • A system to assign the command responsibility to another Company Officer Why do we pass Command? • The initial Company Officer may be in Fast Attack Mode and it is taking longer than expected • You CAN’T command from inside the structure! How do we pass Command? • The initial Company Officer radios from inside to the next arriving Officer • The Officer to whom Command is being given should be on scene and not enroute!
Transferring Command What is Transferring Command? • A more formal method than “passing” Command • Should be included in Department SOG’s • Happens at larger incidents when a more senior Officer arrives and wants to assume Command • Face-to-face is best but can be done via radio • Important: the new IC must receive all the “relevant” information from the outgoing IC • Question: What kind of information is relevant?
Additional Fire Ground Components • Incident Safety Officer (ISO) • Risk management consultant • Advisor to IC re: risks • Provides situation overview & its risks • Dept. OG’s should include ISO • Rapid Intervention Team (R.I.T.) • A standby team for FF rescue • Specially trained • Excused from normal fire ground duties & tasks • Entry Control (part of Accountability) • Keeps track of FF’s in the Danger Zone • (continued….)
Additional Fire Ground Components • Rehab • Rest, hydration, cool-off (e.g. forearm immersion) • Sector Officers monitor FF’s and send to Rehab • Staging • Is a Sector – may have Officer assigned to Staging • Additional apparatus, equipment & manpower • Reports to IC • Also a part of Accountability • Fire Ground Incident Technician (F.I.T.) • This is an “assistant” or a “scribe” to work with the IC • Can be a VALUABLE helper for the IC! • So what does all this look like organizationally?
OH #3 FIRE GROUNDSCHEMATIC STRATEGIC ENTRY CONTROL INCIDENT COMMANDER ISO REHAB RIT STAGING OUTSIDE AGENCIES TACTICAL FIRE CONTROL SECTOR RESCUE SECTOR P1 R1 A1 P2 TASK
Command Structure Quiz Time for Quiz #2! (Page 18)