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A Comparative study of the endo - and ecto - parasites of Muturu and Zebu cattle

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  1. A Comparative study of the endo- and ecto- parasites of Muturu and Zebu cattle Research Project Number: UNAAB/IFSERAR/IRG 43 Investigators: Talabi,A.O., Oyewusi,I.K., Otesile,E.B., Sonibare,A.O. and Oyekunle,M.A.

  2. INTRODUCTION • In sub-Saharan Africa, ticks, tick-borne infections (TBIs), together with tsetse-transmitted trypanosomosis, constitute arguably the major pathological parasite complex responsible for limiting animal production (De Dekenet al., 2007). • Helminth diseases are equally important although, often neglected (Adejinmi and Harrison, 1996). • The presence of these diseases also constrains the introduction of exotic upgraded cattle with a view to improving the efficiency of livestock industry.

  3. In regions of Africa infested with tsetse flies, increasing consideration is being given to selection and propagation of breeds of livestock with the innate ability to withstand the effects of trypanosome infections (Katunguka-Rwakishaya et al., 1997), as there is need to increase animal production to meet up the protein requirement.

  4. The Muturu breed of cattle has adapted and naturally selected to be tolerant to trypanosomosis, ticks and tick-borne diseases (Adeniji, 1983). • The objectives of this study are: • 1. To assess the distribution of endo- and ecto- parasites found in the Muturu and Zebu cattle. • 2. To assess the load of endo- and ecto- parasites found in the Muturu and Zebu cattle. • 3. To compare these findings between the Muturu with those of Zebu cattle.

  5. MATERIALS AND METHODS • Location of study: This study was carried out in Abeokuta and its environs, that is, Alabata Fulani settlement, UNAAB farm, Gbonogun and Odeda cattle ranches and subsistent farmers in Ipokia. • Sample Collection: A total of 274 samples (for blood, faecal and ectoparasites) from Muturu (76) and Zebu (198) cattle were collected. • Laboratory examination of the samples: Laboratory examination of the samples were carried out at COLVET. • Data Analysis: Data obtained were expressed in percentages and means.

  6. RESULTS • This study commenced in April 2010, is still on-going and will be terminated in February, 2011 while analysis will be done in March. The distribution of animals assessed is presented in Table 1. Of the total of 274 animals, 76 were Muturu, while 198 were Zebu breed of cattle. • Table 1: Distribution of animals based on location, breed, age and sex in the study • ______________________________________________________________________________ • LOCATION No of Ani Breed Age Sex • ______________________________________________________________________________ • MT ZBYG AD M F • ______________________________________________________________________________ • UNAAB farm 15 7 8 0 15 1 14 • Ipokia 60 60 0 12 48 11 49 • Gbonogun 15 1 14 2 13 0 15 • Odeda 22 6 16 2 20 3 19 • Alabata 162 2 160 17 145 16 146 • ______________________________________________________________________________ • Total 274 76 198 33 241 31 243 • ______________________________________________________________________________

  7. The Number of animals infected with Haemo-parasites is presented in Table 2 • Table 2: Number of animals infected with Haemo-parasites ______________________________________________________________________ • Haemo-Parasite Muturu (%) Zebu (%) ______________________________________________________________________ • Babesia alone 12 (22.6) 54 (44.3) • Anaplasma alone 16 (30.2) 22 (18.0) • Trypanosomes alone 1 (1.9) 1 (0.8) • Babesia and Anaplasma 6 (11.3) 21 (17.2) • Babesia and Trypanosomes 3 (5.7) 13 (10.7) • Anaplasma and Trypanosomes 7 (13.2) 4 (3.3) • Babesia, Anaplasma and Trypanosomes 8 (15.1) 7 (5.7) • ______________________________________________________________________ • Total 53 (100.0) 122 (100.0) • ______________________________________________________________________ • The Number of ticks and species counted from the animals is presented in Table 3. An average of 13.1 ticks were counted on each Muturu, while 27.7 ticks were counted on each Zebu cattle.

  8. Table 3: Ecto-parasite load based on breed _________________________________________________________ • Ecto-Parasite Muturu (n) Zebu (n) _________________________________________________________ • Amblyomma 390 (38) 1454 (82) • Boophilus 140 (17) 2000 (102) • Rhipicephalus 176 (16) 422 (37) • _________________________________________________________ • Total 706 (54) 3876 (140) • _________________________________________________________ • The Mean Packed Cell Volume of Parasitized and Non-parasitized animals is presented in Table 4. In this study, 90.8% of the Muturu assessed had one parasite or the other, while 85.4% of the Zebu are parasitized.

  9. Table 4: Mean Packed Cell Volume of Parasitized and Non-parasitized animals _______________________________________________ • BREED Mean PCV • _______________________________________________ • Parasitized (n) % Non-parasitized (n) % _______________________________________________ • Muturu 34.8±5.1 (69) 90.8 39.0±2.8 (7) 9.2 • Zebu 29.9± 4.4(169) 85.4 36.0± 4.0 (29) 14.6 • _______________________________________________

  10. The Mean Packed Cell Volume of Haemo-parasitized, Helminth-parasitized and Ecto-parasitized animals is presented in Table 5 • Table 5: Mean Packed Cell Volume of Haemo-parasitized, Helminth-parasitized and Ecto-parasitized animals __________________________________________________________________________ • Parasite type Mean PCV • ____________________________________________________________ • Muturu (n) Zebu (n) __________________________________________________________________________ • Haemo-Parasitized 37.6±5.1 (5) 33.3±3.2 (3) • Helminth-parasitized 39.5±1.3 (4) 33.0±4.6 (9) • Ecto-parasitized 37.2±6.3 (5) 33.4±4.5 (20) • Haemo-& Helminth-parasitized 38.8±3.7 (6) 30.6±3.0 (17) • Haemo & Ecto-parasitized 33.3±4.5 (19) 31.7±3.7 (31) • Helminth & Ecto-parasitized 37.4±7.3 (7) 30.7±3.1 (18) • Haemo, Helminth & Ecto-parasitized 33.3±4.3 (23) 27.2±3.9 (71) • __________________________________________________________________________

  11. Mean Packed Cell Volume of Parasitized and Non-parasitized animals based on the various locations is presented in Table 6. • Table 6: Mean Packed Cell Volume of Parasitized and Non-parasitized animals based on the location • ____________________________________________________________ • Location Mean PCV of Parasitized Mean PCV of Non- Parasitized ________________________________________________________ • Muturu (n) Zebu (n) Muturu (n) Zebu (n) • ____________________________________________________________ • UNAAB farm 32.9±3.7 (7) 29.2±2.7 (6) None 33.0±9.9 (2) • Ipokia 35.8±4.5 (55) None 39.0±3.4 (5) None • Gbonogun 22.0±0.0 (1) 26.9±3.2 (14) None None • Odeda 33.8±7.1 (4) 34.4±4.4 (14) 39.0±1.4 (2) 36.0±4.2 (2) • Alabata 24.5±2.1 (2) 29.8±4.3 (135) None 36.3±3.5 (25) • ____________________________________________________________

  12. DISCUSSION • The results of this investigation revealed that 706 ticks were counted on 54 Muturu representing an average of 13.1 ticks per Muturu, while 3876 ticks were counted on 140 Zebu, representing 27.7 ticks per Zebu. • This is an indication that the Muturu was able to habour lesser ticks than Zebu cattle. • Also, single infection with Babesia is the commonest (44.3%) haemo-parasite in Zebu, while Anaplasma is the commonest in Muturu. Both organisms are transmitted by tick vectors.

  13. The widespread presence of ticks on all animals in this study suggested that they could be playing a greater role in disease transmission. • Tick borne diseases especially theileriosis, babesiosis, dermatophilosis and cowdriosis seriously limit livestock production and improvement in much of Africa. • Also, presence of ticks inhibits animal’s ability to develop immunity and recover from dermatophilosis (Koney et al., 1996).

  14. The mean PCV of Parasitized Muturu was 34.8±5.1%, while it was 29.9± 4.4% in parasitized Zebu. This also gave an indication that the Muturu was able to withstand parasitic infestation and a confirmation of the findings of Adeniji, (1983), who stated that the Muturu has adapted and are naturally selected to be tolerant to trypanosomosis, ticks and tick-borne diseases. • The very high parasitic load observed in the animal population in this study is an indication that many of our animals habour parasites. • These animals may be carriers of a wide range of economic important diseases, the control of which may be very expensive.

  15. This may also result in additional cost of production to the owners of in-contact animals. Since the potential for increasing livestock production in Nigeria can only be fully realized if the animals are adequately protected against major diseases, these animals should be regularly monitored and screened for diseases of economic and/ or epizootic importance to minimize spread of parasitic diseases. • In conclusion, there is need to encourage the selection and propagation of the Muturu breed of cattle with the innate ability to withstand the effects of parasitic diseases in order to increase animal production to meet up the national protein requirement.

  16. REFERENCES • Adejinmi, J.O. and Harrison, L.J.S. (1996). Parasitic nematodes of domestic ruminants in Nigeria: Epidemiology. Tropical Veterinarian 14, 3-15. • Adeniji, K.O. (1983). Review of endangered cattle breeds of Africa. Animal Genetic Resources in Africa. OAU/STRC/IBAR, Nairobi, Kenya. Second OAU Expert Committee Meeting on Animal Genetic Resources in Africa. 24-28 November 1983: Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. p 20-25. • De Deken R, Martin V, Saido A, Madder M, Brandt J, Geysen D, 2007. An outbreak of East Coast Fever on the Comoros: A consequence of the import of immunized cattle from Tanzania? Veterinary Parasitology, 143: 245-253. • Katunguka-Rwakishaya, E., Murray, M. and Holmes, P.H. (1997). Pathophysiology of Trypanosoma congolense infection in two breeds of sheep, Scottish Blackface and Finn Dorset. Veterinary Parasitology 68, 215-225. • Koney EBM, Morrow AN, Heron LA, Ambrose NC, 1996. Studies on the epidemiology of dermatophilosis in Ghanaian cattle. In Proceeding of 2nd International conference on tick-borne pathogens at the Host-vector interface, Kruger National park, South Africa, August 1995. • Macaluso KR, Davis J, Alam U, Korman A, Rutherford JS, Rosenberg R, Azad AF, 2003. Spotted fever group Rickettsiae in ticks from the Masai Mara region of Kenya. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 68: 551-553.