Services & Settlements. Services Central Place Theory Cities & Services Rural Settlements. According to your book "A service is any activity that fulfills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it."
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Central Place Theory
Cities & Services
According to your book "A service is any activity that fulfills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it."
Traditionally, economists have divided economic activities into three categories:
Every city provides both consumer and business services. But not every city has the same number or kind of services. And consumer services and business services do not necessarily have the same distributions.
In the 1930s the German geographer Walter Christaller devised a way of describing how towns of different sizes were arranged - and how the services they supply is also arranged. This is called central place theory.
We assume we are dealing with a flat, featurelessplain - no mountains, rivers, deserts, etc.
The range of a good or service is the maximum distance people are willing to travel.
The threshold is the minimum number of people (customers) needed to support a good or service.
Market areas don’t exist in isolation – they’re nested, with larger centers having larger market areas, and within those areas smaller centers serving smaller market areas.
Minot, ND (pop. 41,000) is an example of a city which has developed relative to Central Place Theory: with 7 small towns, 15 villages, and 19 hamlets spreading out in a ‘hexagonal manner’.
Different sizes of cities have different numbers and varieties of services.
What’s the difference between a “town” and “city?” Different countries have different criteria.
However, we can use common sense – and by any reasonable standard, we can say that we live today in an urban world.
Source (11-19-01): http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov/gsfc/earth/pictures/citylights/flat_earth_nightm.jpg
Data source: http://esa.un.org/unup/
There is greater urban populationtoday in the More Developed Countries.
177 cities with populations over 2 million
100 cities with populations over 3 million
55 cities with populations over 5 million
22 cities with populations over 10 million
3 cities with populations over 20 million
There are at least 90 cities in China with populations over one million.
There are 9 cities in the US with populations over one million.The World’s Largest Cities
The Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Study Group has a slightly different interpretation of “world cities”; it has ten “alpha world cities.”
Source (4-16-2006): http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/citymap.html
The Cayman Islands – a population of 55,000 and 60,000 corporations (including 6,000 hedge funds and nearly 300 banks) – with no taxes.Business Services in LDCs
Call centre in Bangalore – nearly half a million people in India work in places like this today.
There are two categories of economic activity we can use to understand how settlements function: the basic and the non-basic economic activities.
Though the world has been urbanizing, nearly half the world’s population still live in rural settlements.
Picture sources: http://exploringafrica.matrix.msu.edu/students/curriculum/m20/activity3.php; http://www.toursgallery.com/home_imgs/Thatch-rural-village.jpg; http://content.lib.washington.edu/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/buildings&CISOPTR=7397
In the dispersed pattern of rural settlement farmers live on individual farms, isolated from their neighbors.
Sod house, Nebraska, 1877
“Civilization” is literally how you live in a city (so is “politics” – how to live in a polis)
Argos, c. 5000 BCECities and Civilization
Jericho, c. 6800 BCE