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CUFC EPA2010 Update. Mike Finney Vocational Sales Manager, Utilities and Cranes May, 2009. Agenda. Why SCR? EPA10 SCR Equipment Component Packaging Vehicle Performance/Operation Cummins Experience – SCR vs Extreme EGR Diesel Exhaust Fluid Myths DEF Infrastructure Summary M2e Hybrid

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cufc epa2010 update

CUFC EPA2010 Update

Mike Finney

Vocational Sales Manager, Utilities and Cranes

May, 2009

slide2

Agenda

  • Why SCR?
  • EPA10 SCR Equipment
  • Component Packaging
  • Vehicle Performance/Operation
  • Cummins Experience – SCR vs Extreme EGR
  • Diesel Exhaust Fluid Myths
  • DEF Infrastructure
  • Summary
  • M2e Hybrid
  • Natural Gas Vehicles
overview

33% Urea concentration in water

  • Clear & odorless
  • Non-toxic and biodegradable
  • Corrosive to aluminum
  • Weight = 9.2lbs/gallon
  • Freezing point = 12° F (will require
  • heated tank and injection lines)

Common Terms

Overview
  • SCR = Selective Catalytic Reduction
    • A vehicle emissions control technology to reduce diesel engine emissions for passenger cars, light & heavy duty trucks. Reduces NOx using a reducing agent by converting NOx into nitrogen, water and tiny amounts of carbon dioxide.
  • DEF = Diesel Exhaust Fluid
    • A solution of 32.5% automotive-grade urea and 67.5% purified water used in the SCR process; also referred to as AUS32

32.5% Urea

100% DEF

Diesel

Exhaust

Fluid

67.5%

Water

slide4

Overview

Common Terms

  • DOC = Diesel Oxidation Catalyst
    • Part of the 2007 Aftertreament system that converts soot into ash
  • DPF = Diesel Particulate Filter
    • Part of the 2007 Aftertreatment system that traps ash
  • ATD = AfterTreatment Device
    • Combination of DOC and DPF used to meet 2007 EPA emissions standards
  • SCR Catalyst
    • EPA 2010 hardware used to convert NOx into Nitrogen and Water
overview5

Exhaust Gas Recirculation at lower

levels than EPA 2007

Exhaust Gas from DPF Outlet

Containing Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)

Precisely Controlled Quantities of 32.5% DEF Solution

Injected Into the Exhaust Stream

Ammonia and Nitrogen Oxides React In the

Catalyst to Form Nitrogen and Water

DEF Solution “Hydrolyzes” Into Ammonia Gas

Which Mixes with the Exhaust Gas

SCR Device

How SCR Works

Overview

Intake Throttle Valve

= Exhaust

NOx

PM

Doser

P

T

T

T

NOx

Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC)

Diesel Particulate Filter(DPF)

N2

H2O

scr benefits
SCR Benefits
  • SCR is better economics… with 3 - 5% better diesel fuel economy than equivalent HD 2007 engines, and 5 – 9% better than a high EGR approach for medium duty engines, SCR is the first emissions change to provide a cost benefit to the customer.
  • SCR is cleaner… SCR is the only technology that is able to meet NOx levels of 0.2g/bhp-hr at the tailpipe. Customers can be proud to support environment improvements.
  • SCR is convenient… Fewer active regenerations will improve operational flexibility. DEF supply will not be an issue and will become second nature to driver when operating their vehicles.
  • SCR is proven… With over 600,000 SCR vehicles in operation in Europe and over 10 Million SCR test miles run in the United States customers can be confident in SCR.
slide7

Daimler Vehicles

Daimler Trucks – Trucks forthe World!

Truck market (Med/Hvy):

2.1 Million units 2008

Principal Daimler Trucks production sites in the world

Manufacturer

Market share

Vehicles

Components

scr equipment
SCR Equipment
  • New major components for 2010:
    • Understep or Vertical system contains both ATD & SCR catalyst
    • OR
    • 2 Box separates ATD & SCR catalyst (est. 10% vehicles)
    • DEF plastic storage tank (6, 13, 23 gallon sizes)

ISB/C Switchback

DD13 1-Box

scr equipment myth vs facts

Fact – actual SCR design

SCR Equipment - Myth vs Facts

Myth - what the competitor says SCR will look like

md 1 box understep ats

SCR

DPF

MD 1-Box Understep ATS
  • Pros:
  • Clear BOC solution
  • Lightest weight
  • Cons:
  • LH fuel tank only
slide13

SCR

DPF

MD 2-Box Vertical ATS (2V2)

Left-hand and Right-hand configurations required for markets, e.g. Snow Plows

Cummins configuration in M2-106 shown

slide14

MD 2-Box Vertical ATS (2V2)

Left-hand and Right-hand configurations required for markets, e.g. Snow Plows

DD13 configuration in M2-112 shown

md 2 box horizontal 2hh

DPF

SCR

MD 2-Box Horizontal (2HH)
  • Pros:
  • Clear BOC solution
  • Familiar design
  • Support dual fuel tanks
  • Cons:
  • PTO restrictions
  • W/B restrictions
slide16

DEF Storage and Injection System

MD 13 & 23 Gallon DEF Tank Mtg

19mm fillerneck (smaller than diesel nozzle)

DEF Dosing Pump

MD CBOC 6 Gallon DEF Tank

scr equipment17
SCR Equipment
  • Compared to EPA07 weight increase for EPA 2010 will be approximately 217lbs – 500lbs
    • Lower weight for medium duty with 6 gallon DEF (217 lbs)
      • ISB with SCR expected to be 325 lbs lighter than Maxxforce DT w/high EGR
    • Higher for on-highway w/23 gallon DEF (up to 500 lbs)
    • Includes the weight of DEF
  • SCR hardware is designed to last the life of the vehicle
  • Current maintenance intervals will not change
    • DEF filter will need replacement at approximately 200,000 to 300,000 miles
vehicle performance operation

Gauges/Lights

Vehicle Performance/Operation

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

Full

Empty

% DEF in tank

vehicle performance operation19

Gauges/Lights

Vehicle Performance/Operation
  • 0% to 2.5% DEF tank level:
  • - Under no circumstances will the engine be shutdown due to running the vehicle out of DEF or putting the improper fluid in the DEF tank
  • After prolonged driver warnings and clear evidence of safe vehicle situation, vehicle speed may be limited to 5 mph.
    • after refueling diesel tank
    • vehicle stationary for more than 1 hour
    • after restart

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

Full

Empty

% DEF in tank

slide20

Vehicle Performance/Operation

  • SCR system will detect when an improper fluid has been put in the Diesel Exhaust Fluid tank
  • When improper or contaminated DEF is detected, the following inducement will be employed:
    • 25 % engine derate
    • 55 mph speed limit imposed
  • After 1,000 miles or 20 hours of operation without remedy a more significant action will be initiated in which the vehicle speed will be limited to 5 mph provided one of the following conditions are met:
    • after refueling diesel tank
    • vehicle stationary for more than 1 hour
    • after restart

Malfunction Indicator Lamp

  • Under no circumstances will the engine be shutdown due to running the vehicle out of DEF or putting the improper fluid in the DEF tank
slide21

Less Diesel Consumed

The combination of EGR, DPF and SCR exceeds the emission standards while saving diesel.

Less Active Regeneration

The higher engine-out NOx allow for DPF regenerations at lower temperatures, therefore increasing passive regenerations and reducing active regenerations.

Less Heat Rejection

The internal combustion process can be tuned for higher engine-out NOx levels. This results in higher combustion temperatures, less heat rejected and therefore higher thermal efficiency.

Vehicle Performance/Operation

Engine Optimized for Fuel Efficiency

3 - 5% better diesel fuel economy than comparable HD 2007 engine

5 - 9% better diesel fuel economy than extreme EGR approach on MD 2010 engine

5 reasons cummins chose scr vs high egr for epa10

Cummins Experience – High EGR vs SCR

5 Reasons Cummins chose SCR vs High EGR for EPA10
  • Reliability
    • Cummins found high-EGR engines produce condensation in the engine which severely impacts life to overhaul (20 to 25% reduction)
  • Fuel economy
    • Cummins SCR solutions found to be 5-9% more fuel efficient than high-EGR
  • Performance
    • High-EGR would have resulted in 50-100hp loss for same displacement engine
  • Throttle Response
    • Better throttle response in 2010 with SCR
  • Operating Range
    • Wider sweet spot for driveability and enhanced fuel economy
costs for meeting emissions change

Cummins Experience – High EGR vs SCR

Costs for meeting emissions change
  • Clearly there are costs associated with meeting tightening regulations
  • Cummins found that there would have been costs with either high-EGR or SCR solutions.
    • High-EGR: complex changes to EGR system, air handling system, vehicle cooling systems. Twin turbos, additional coolers, new hoods and cooling systems, new injection system and electronics
    • SCR: addition of SCR catalyst, tanks, lines
  • SCR is the solution that provides long term payback
    • MD 5-9% fuel economy differential between SCR and high-EGR
    • SCR has no degredation in durability/reliability
    • SCR has no change to maintenance intervals
    • SCR extends duration between DPF Regen cycles
slide24

Cummins Experience – High EGR vs SCR

  • Heat rejection – significantly lower heat rejection for SCR
    • No hood or cooling package redesign needed
    • This drives cost for high-EGR solution
  • Power ratings – no change in power for same displacement engine
    • High-EGR would have either had to reduce hp by 50-100 hp depending on the platform or increase displacement
    • This drives cost and adds weight for high-EGR solution
  • Weight – impact minimal
    • SCR approximately 217 lbs on midrange (including 6 gallons DEF)
    • High-EGR – weight of EGR cooler, additional turbo, etc on engine
  • Fuel Economy – significantly better fuel economy
    • Starting at a fuel advantage already with 2007 product
    • SCR significantly more fuel efficient than high-EGR for MD products (laws of physics)
    • Any compensation to reduce (although not eliminate) condensation/reliability issues only further impacts fuel economy in a negative way.
    • This provides payback for SCR solutions which high-EGR would not have
def fact or fiction

Fiction

DEF Fact or Fiction?

Fact:

DEF is corrosive, hazardous, and unsafe to handle

  • Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
  • Hazards Identification “Urea Solution is not Flammable”
  • First Aid Measures“Wash area thoroughly with soap and water”
  • Fire Fighting Measures“Urea solution is not flammable”
  • Transportation Information“Urea solution is not listed by any US or Canadian transportation authority as a hazardous material…”
def fact or fiction26

Fiction

DEF Fact or Fiction?

Fact:

Urea becomes toxic at 118°F

“Urea does not become toxic at any temperature”

“…at 122°F, DEF will still meet ISO specifications of less than 0.2% ammonia for at least 35 days. At that rate with would take more than 2 years to reach the ammonia level of household ammonia which is still not classified as toxic” James Spooner VP & GM Colonial Chemical Company

def fact vs fiction

Fiction

DEF Fact vs. Fiction

EPA Requires DEF flow within 70 minutes – Detroit Diesel testing has proven DEF flow within EPA requirements

Fact:

DEF is useless in the cold because it freezes at 12°F

Engine coolant is used to thaw DEF in tank. System will function until DEF begins to flow

DEF will start to freeze at 12°F

def fact vs fiction28

DEF Shelf Life at Constant Temperature

(average temperature during month of July)

50

45

40

35

30

44

Months

74°F avg. July temp

41

Months

75°F avg. July temp

Months

25

36 months

77°F avg. July temp

20

15

10

7 months

5

0

Los Angeles

Chicago

Atlanta

Phoenix

Fiction

DEF Fact vs. Fiction

Fact:

At 86°F DEF will only last 1 month

At 86°F DEF has a shelf life of 1 YEAR!

95°F avg. July temp

Source: Terra Industries

def fact vs fiction29

Fiction

DEF Fact vs. Fiction

Fact:

DEF pricing is dependant on packaging size

DEF will cost between $17 and $34 per gallon

Worst Case:Pass Car Dealership Gallon

Most Frequent Scenario:Fleet Terminal 275 Gallon IBC

$15.50 per Gallon

$2.61 per Gallon

$7.75*2 = $15.50/gallon

$719.60/275 = $2.61/gallon

2010 fact vs fiction

Even Europe is moving away from SCR technology

Fiction

2010 Fact vs. Fiction

Fact:

“It is generally accepted that a Euro 6 (2013) engine will combine both SCR and EGR technology.” - Automotive World

“Euro 6 (2013) limits are almost certainly going to require EGR and SCR to share the burden of NOx control…”

- Roadtransport.com

2010 fact vs fiction31

Fiction

2010 Fact vs. Fiction

SCR is not a long term solution

Fact:

  • SCR reduces fuel consumption which is directly tied to CO2 emissions

- Transport Topics

EGR 2007

EGR 2010

how can i determine how much def i will use

Diesel Exhaust Fluid Myths

How Can I Determine how Much DEF I will Use?

Example – Delivery

Annual miles for average truck = 15,000 miles

MPG for average truck = 8 mpg

15,000 miles / 8 mpg = 1,875 gallons diesel fuel per year

DEF usage @ 2% of fuel consumption = 37.5 gallons of DEF / year

37.5 gallons / 6 gallon tank (average size) = ~7 DEF fill-ups / year

Diesel cost~ $5,625

DEF cost ~ $97.50 per year

Diesel cost savings due to fuel economy improvement ~ $300

So…DEF fill-up approx. every 6 to 8 weeks

Example Only

how can i determine how much def i will use33

Diesel Exhaust Fluid Myths

How Can I Determine how Much DEF I will Use?

Example – Utility Truck with PTO operation

Fuel consumption at high idle = 1.2 gallons/hour

Assume PTO operation 6 hours per day, 240 days per year = 1,440 gallons per year

5,000 miles / 7 mpg = 714 gallons diesel fuel per year

DEF usage @ 2% of fuel consumption = 43 gallons of DEF / year

43 gallons / 6 gallon tank (average size) = ~8 DEF fill-ups / year

Diesel cost~$6,462

DEF cost ~$112

Diesel cost savings due to fuel economy increase ~ $349

So…DEF fill-up approx. every 6 weeks

Example Only

myth 5 def will be difficult to find

Diesel Exhaust Fluid Myths

Myth #5 – DEF will be difficult to find.
  • DEF will be available for customers to purchase
  • DTNA and Cummins are working with industry partners to ensure DEF is readily available
  • DTNA and Cummins will be working to ensure availability of DEF through our distributor and dealer network
  • Many major truck stops will carry DEF through the country
infrastructure taking shape rapidly

DEF Infrastructure - Availability

Infrastructure Taking Shape Rapidly
  • SCR Stakeholders group continues to move forward with the distribution network to ensure a smooth transition into 2010.
    • Pilot Travel Centers, TA Travel Centers of America, and Petro Stopping Centers have already commented to supplying DEF.
    • Other partners are expected to make announcements in early 2009
def infrastructure bulk systems
DEF Infrastructure - Bulk Systems
  • Numerous bulk manufactures have announced above ground products available for DEF
  • Gilbarco and Wayne Dresser are preparing to deliver approved dispensing devices:
    • W&M approval is an open issue
    • UL approval is an open issue
  • A number of European system manufactures are evaluating U.S partnerships in order to launch local businesses
def infrastructure bulk containers
DEF Infrastructure - Bulk Containers
  • (275) gallon IBC’s will support the early launch of DEF as the primary home fill option
  • IBC’s will be available from locator DEF distributors OR at our Dealer / Distributor network
  • One IBC will support 89,375 miles of truck utilization
  • IBC enclosures will become available to house the product in cold climates (Heated enclosures)
  • DDC is currently testing an prototype enclosure produced by Bennacor.
def infrastructure dealer distributors
DEF Infrastructure – Dealer/Distributors
  • All Dealers and Distributors will handle DEF to support the network
  • This program will be launched mid year to support customer demo units and pre series volumes
  • Part number will be generated and a direct ship program will be launched
  • The market will be competitive as DEF distributors will also offer product direct
def infrastructure fluid locator
DEF Infrastructure - Fluid Locator:
  • The U.S Department of Energy has developed a web site which will show DEF availability
  • The internet software will show locations of DEF availability
  • The site will go live with the automobile sites in 1st quarter 2009
  • Commercial diesel locations will follow in 2nd quarter 2009
  • All DTNA dealers and distributors will be added to the site
  • All travel centers handling DEF will also be part of the site
def infrastructure industry website

FactsAboutSCR.com

DEF Infrastructure - Industry Website

What you will find there

  • Third Party information about SCR Technology
  • Recent 2010 Emission Press Releases
  • Diesel Exhaust Fluid developments
scr summary
SCR Summary
  • SCR is better economics… with 3 - 5% better diesel fuel economy than equivalent HD 2007 engines, and 5 – 9% better than a high EGR approach for medium duty engines, SCR is the first emissions change to provide a cost benefit to the customer.
  • SCR is cleaner… SCR is the only technology that is able to meet NOx levels of 0.2g/bhp-hr at the tailpipe. Customers can be proud to support environment improvements.
  • SCR is convenient… Fewer active regenerations will improve operational flexibility. DEF supply will not be an issue and will become second nature to driver when operating their vehicles.
  • SCR is proven… With over 600,000 SCR vehicles in operation in Europe and over 10 Million SCR test miles run in the United States customers can be confident in SCR.
m2e utility hybrid 342 1r4
M2e Utility Hybrid (342-1R4)

Key Specs (342-1R4, EH-8E306-UP)

  • M2-106 straight truck
  • GVW – up to 40K
  • Cummins ISB – 200 to 300hp / 520 to 660 ft-lb
  • Eaton Parallel Electric Hybrid Drive – 60hp/310 lb-ft peak
  • 6 speed Ultrashift transmission
  • Air Brakes

Performance (dependent on stationary PTO usage)

  • Fuel Economy Improved 40% - 60%
  • Idle Time Reduced 4 to 5 Hours per Day
  • CO2 Output Reduced 13 to 17 Tons/Year

Financial

  • Federal Tax Credit
  • Class 6 = $6K
  • Class 7 = $12K
  • Annual savings $4,500 to $6,000

Southwest Research Dyno Testing – ePTO Cycle

slide44

Sterling to Freightliner Transition

DTNA is committed to continued support of the NG Market with the introduction of the Freightliner M2-112 with Natural Gas

Sterling SB 113

Production discontinued March 2009

M2 112

2009 SOP