Providing for differentiation Eve bearne Unit 6.2 p, 274 - 289
Lecture’s Objectives • See the links between differentiation and inclusion; • Understand the importance of providing a differentiated approach to the curriculum for a diverse range of learners; • Understand the main approaches to differentiation; • Develop practical strategies to provide differentiated approaches to learning.
Lets share our thoughts on differentiated instruction ! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AqepSNNjowU
Discussion After watching this video: What do you think differentiation means ? How can we apply it in teaching ?
Differentiation refers to provision of learning opportunities and activities for individuals in particular classrooms. This often includes a concept of “matching” the task or activity to the child’s experience, knowledge and skills. ~ Eve Bearne Differentiation is a framework or philosophy for effective teaching that involves providing students with different avenues to acquiring content; to processing, constructing, or making sense of ideas; and to developing teaching materials and assessment measures so that all students within a classroom can learn effectively, regardless of differences in ability. ~ Wikipedia
Differentiation and Inclusion They are links between differentiationand inclusion, but while inclusion is largely concerned with equity in terms of individual rights and curriculum entitlement, differentiation focuses on the management of teaching and learning.
Activity In pairs, select one or two of the list of struggles that pupils might have in page, 280 and consider , as teachers, how can these pupils be supported in their learning?
Creating a School Environment For Learning • If differentiation means taking account of the diversity of pupils’ experiences, knowledge and approaches to learning, the environment is critical in allowing or blocking access to learning. • In reviewing provision at whole-school level, it is worth considering how hospitable to diversity the physical setting is. (Read figure 6.2.4)
The Classroom Environment • Teacher should check classroom setting, since the physical environment reflects the thoughts of the teacher about what provision for diversity means. (Read figure 6.2.5) • To support the diverse needs of learners, teacher should also set anenvironment of opportunity, expectation and challenge. • This might include: • Modelling and demonstrating processes; • Offering pupils chances to experiment and try things out for themselves. • Creating an environment where failing is seen as a part of learning. • Building on successes.
Managing Groups • Strategies to organize groups may depend on social factors as well as learning objectives, so pupils might be grouped according to: • Friendship patterns; • Expertise or ability relative to the task or subject; • A mix of abilities relative to the task or subject; • Gender; • Home language; • Pupils’ own choices; • The content of the activity. • It is important to teach pupils how to work productively in groups. This might mean, for example: • Negotiating ground rules for turn-taking and dealing with disagreement; • Using role-play and stimulations;
Provision ( Planning For Input & Activities ) • In long- and medium-term planning for classes, teachers make decisions about learning objectives: the facts, concepts, strategies they want the class to learn, what experiences they want them to have; what attitudes they want them to develop. • In shorter-term planning for specific learning outcomes, teachers may differentiate by providing different tasks within an activity to cater for different levels of ability. This short clip shows how “student choice” is an effective differentiation strategy: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wFJNchYlJTo
Resources & Support • It is important that teachers use: • 1. Material resources • ( computers, tape recorders, videos, pictures, maps and print). • 2. Human resources • (teaching assistants): • They can help in planning part of the teaching. • They can support children who are experiencing difficulties, gifted or talented.
Outcomes, Response & Assessment • Differentiation by outcome is allied with response to help move learners on and that response has to be based on learning outcomes whether tangible (written work, craft, physical activities) and intangible (increased confidence, the ability to carry out a particular operation or to present ideas orally). • Teachers can use a differentiated range of types of assessment to describe the achievements of a diverse set of learners.
Summary • Differentiation is the process of “ensuring that what a student learns, how he or she learns it, and how the student demonstrates what he or she has learned is a match for that student’s readiness level, interests, and preferred mode of learning” ~ Tomlinson • Approaches to differentiation: • Creating a School Environment For Learning • Classroom Environment • Managing Groups • Planning For Input & Activities • Resources & Support • Outcomes, Response & Assessment
References • Learning to Teach in the Primary School. Arthur & Cremin,2010. 2nd edition. Routledge: Taylor & Francis Group, London. • Wikipedia, Differentiated instruction: • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differentiated_instruction