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Building Vocabulary from Word Roots. Lesson 1: Latin Prefix ad-. Did you know?. Over sixty percent of all words in the English dictionary are based on Greek or Latin roots? Ninety percent of English words with more than two syllables come from Latin and Greek.

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building vocabulary from word roots

Building Vocabulary from Word Roots

Lesson 1:

Latin Prefix ad-

did you know
Did you know?
  • Over sixty percent of all words in the English dictionary are based on Greek or Latin roots?
  • Ninety percent of English words with more than two syllables come from Latin and Greek.
what we already know
What We Already Know
  • Prefix- almost always at beginning of word, provides direction, negates a word by meaning “not,” or intensifies the meaning of the word by adding the notion of “very.”
  • Root- (base)is the smallest part of the word that contains meaning.
  • Suffix- appears at the end of the word, indicates the part of speech.
slide5
ad-

The Latin prefix ad- means “to, toward, add to”

assimilation
assimilation
  • Assimilation is defined as becoming like something else.
  • Sometimes when a prefix meets a base, it undergoes a spelling change: the final consonant of the prefix “turns into” or assimilates and becomes the first consonant of the base. The result is a double consonant near the beginning of the word.
ad similate assimilation
ad + similate = assimilation
  • Words beginning with assimilated ad- are easily recognizable because they usually have double consonants

ad + celerate = accelerate

ad + preciate = appreciate

ad + traction = attraction

* Try saying both forms of the word. Notice how much easier it is to say the latter?

slide8
Ad-

Ad + tract (pull, draw, drag) = attract

(to pull or drawtoward)

Ad + grav (heavy) + ate (act on in a specific way) = aggravate

(to add to the heaviness/seriousness of a situation)

Ad + hes (cling, stick) + ive (tending to do something) = adhesive

(a substance that tends to stick to a surface)

practice
Practice

How do the bolded words use the meanings of to, toward, add to? Use context clues to help create a definition.

  • The surgery on his spine was able to alleviate the pressure on the nerves, freeing him from daily pain.
  • To show how much she appreciated the babysitter’s excellent care of her children, the mother wrote a thank you card.
  • The witness taking the stand was asked to raise his hand and affirm that he would tell only the truth.
  • Ana was unable to assimilate into the Brasilian culture in Rio de Janeiro since she did not speak Portuguese.
  • Let me append a note to the bottom of your homework, telling your teacher that the dog actually did try to eat this page.
practice1
Practice
  • The surgery on his spine was able to alleviate the pressure on the nerves, freeing him from daily pain. To add to the lightness of/to reduce the pressure of something
  • To show how much she appreciated the babysitter’s excellent care of her children, the mother wrote a thank you card. To add to and recognize the value of
  • The witness taking the stand was asked to raise his hand and affirm that he would tell only the truth. To add to the firmness or strength of, to emphasize the truth of
  • Ana was unable to assimilate into the Brasilian culture in Rio de Janeiro since she did not speak Portuguese. To add to the similarity; to become more alike
  • Let me append a note to the bottom of your homework, telling your teacher that the dog actually did try to eat this page. To hang on, to add to
practice2
Practice

Use the definitions of the bases, prefixes, and suffixes, if provided, and the context of the sentence to determine the meanings of the bolded words.

The aggressor continued to follow me down the darkened alley, forcing me to accelerate my pace in an effort to escape him. As several witnesses who saw the chase can attest, his intention seemed to be to annihilate me and abbreviate my life by several decades.

(the base gres means step; the base celer means speed; the base testis means witness; the base nihil means nothing, the base brev means short)

practice3
Practice

The aggressor continued to follow me down the darkened alley, forcing me to accelerate my pace in an effort to escape him. As several witnesses who saw the chase can attest, his intention seemed to be to annihilate me and abbreviate my life by several decades.

  • Aggressor-one who steps towards another
  • Accelerate-to add to the speed of something
  • Attest-to witness to the truth
  • Annihilate-to add to the “nothingness”; to cause something to cease to exist; to kill
  • Abbreviate-to add to the brevity or shortness
practice4
Practice

Use the definitions of the bases, prefixes, and suffixes, if provided, and the context of the sentence to determine the meanings of the bolded words.

The doctor was forced to add an annotation to the patient’s chart that a particular prescription was not appropriate for her. He stated that the addictive properties of the medication, combined with the ease of access to more pills, combined to create a dangerous situation.

(the base note means to mark; the base prop means to own; the base dic means to say or proclaim; the base ces means to move)

practice5
Practice

The doctor was forced to add an annotation to the patient’s chart that a particular prescription was not appropriate for her. He stated that the addictive properties of the medication, combined with the ease of access to more pills, combined to create a dangerous situation.

  • Annotation—to add a note to
  • Appropriate—to add to what one owns; to belong to someone
  • Addictive—adding to the favor of something; to desire it more and more
  • Access—to move towards; to be able to reach
test prep
Test Prep

ad- --this prefix means ______, ______, ______

The use of alliteration in the tongue twister “Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers” is one of the main reasons that it is so fun to say quickly. (the base liter means letter)

  • Define the word alliteration using a definition of the prefix
test prep1
Test Prep

ad- --this prefix means to, toward, add to

The use of alliteration in the tongue twister “Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers” is one of the main reasons that it is so fun to say quickly. (the base liter means letter)

  • Define the word alliteration using a definition of the prefix
  • To add a word that uses the same letter
test prep2
Test Prep

ad- --this prefix means ______, ______, ______

After a long flight and what seemed like an even longer wait in the customs line, the French official affixed his stamp to my passport and welcomed me to Paris. (the base fix means attach)

  • Define the word affixed using a definition of the prefix.
test prep3
Test Prep

ad- --this prefix means to, toward, add to

After a long flight and what seemed like an even longer wait in the customs line, the French official affixed his stamp to my passport and welcomed me to Paris. (the base fix means attach)

  • Define the word affixed using a definition of the prefix. Attached or secured physically to something