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EcoThermo PROJECT. AN INNOVATIVE SYSTEM TO CONVERT OLD CENTRAL BUILDING HEATING PLANTS. 1. OVERVIEW OF THE ECOTHERMO SYSTEMSCOPES. EcoThermo SYSTEM SCOPES, CONTEXT OF USAGE DESCRIPTION. What EcoThermo is

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slide1

EcoThermo PROJECT

AN INNOVATIVE SYSTEM TO CONVERT OLD CENTRAL BUILDING HEATING PLANTS

slide3

EcoThermo SYSTEM SCOPES, CONTEXT OF USAGE DESCRIPTION

  • What EcoThermo is
    • A (1) wireless and (2) remote controllable (3) building automation system intended to (4) convert old centralized heating system without local temperature control and (5) aimed at maximize heating savings
    • Basic system functions
      • (1) independent, (2) active (3) local (flat level) temperature control for each tenant/final user
      • accurate autonomous heat cost allocation based on real heating energy consumption of each living unit (flat, office, common area, etc.)
      • control and monitoring for final users (tenants), building administrators and heating contractors of
        • Flat settings
slide4

EcoThermo SYSTEM SCOPES, CONTEXT OF USAGE DESCRIPTION

  • What EcoThermo is
        • Central heating system performance and state
        • Allocation procedure management and rules customization
    • An innovative wireless communication infrastructure ready to support new building automation services and devices
  • Context of usage
    • Buildings with old heating system without local control
    • Heating systems indifferently with vertical (70%-85% of cases in big cities) or horizontal hydraulic distribution circuit
    • Buildings with already installed heat cost allocator devices to be dismissed because their batteries are discharged

Horizontal distribution

Vertical distribution

slide5

EcoThermo SYSTEM SCOPES, CONTEXT OF USAGE DESCRIPTION

  • EcoThermo whole initiative aims
  • Realize a heating conversion system
    • Less intrusive than the state of the art
    • That increases heating saving with respect to the state of the art
    • That decrease the wasting of batteries and electronic devices w.r.t. the state of the art
    • That better support final users and building providers of services (building administrators and heating contractors)
    • That replaces the state of the art technology
  • State of the art technologies
  • Basically two technologies for heat cost allocation and two technologies for independent temperature control
  • Heat cost allocation
    • based on indirect measures realized by the so called heat cost allocatordevices
    • Based on direct and more accurate measures by the so called heat meter devices (not usable on vertical distribution circuits)

Heatcostallocator

Heat meter

slide6

EcoThermo SYSTEM SCOPES, CONTEXT OF USAGE DESCRIPTION

Thermostatic valves

  • State of the art technologies
  • Independent living unit level temperature control realized
    • (98% of cases) with thermostatic valves
    • (minor cases) with electronic valves

Electronic valves

EcoThermo SYSTEM COMPARISON OF BENEFITS AGAINST STATE OF THE ART

  • New technology to recharge electronic valve batteries without wires (no need of batteries replacement)
  • Higher accuracy and metrological traceability (less tenants disputes)
  • Reduction of wastes
    • Avoid 15M of electronic meters disposal a year due to batteries discharge
  • Benefits
  • Less intrusive: halved the number of devices per radiator
  • Acceptable active control system (electronic valve)
    • Lower price
    • Batteries lasting really for 4-5 years (against 1-1 and half)
slide7

EcoThermo SYSTEM COMPARISON OF BENEFITS AGAINST STATE OF THE ART

  • Benefits
    • Avoid 15M of lithium batteries disposal for metering devices
    • Limit or avoid disposal of batteries for electronic valves
  • Increase energy savings up to 2.5 times
    • Because it is used an active temperature control system and because its electronic valves can be finally accepted by the Market
    • Two IT Expert Software Modules aimed at
      • Increase heaters efficiency (expected 2%-3% more savings)
      • Better management of indoor «low» temperature and transitions between «low» and «high» temperature (expected 1.5%-2.5% more savings)
      • Better management of indoor «low» temperature and transitions between «low» and «high» temperatures (expected 1.5%-2.5% more savings)
      • Automatic suggestions creation i case of potential erroneous or not efficient final user system usage
    • Remote control: tenants can change settings when they are outside according to their new needs
  • Decrease management costs
    • Heating contractors/ESCOs: avoid to move people for the 2-3 annual inspections to check heater efficiency (constant remote monitoring)
slide8

EcoThermo SYSTEM COMPARISON OF BENEFITS AGAINST STATE OF THE ART

    • Building administrators: possibility to send official communications to tenants directly on the flat control unit
  • Can be applied on usage context not compatible with traditional heat cost allocators such as
    • Radiating panels
    • Fan coils
slide9

EcoThermo SYSTEM FURTHER OPPORTUNITIES

Expansion of the system functions and capabilities

Lighiting control

gas

Direct heat meter

Electric power

Big appliance

House smart grid

Water

meter

CONTROL

MEETERING

CH 1

200-300ms

CH 3

0-100ms

  • Market the innovative wireless communication infrastructure for third parts building automation products
    • Able to manage +10k devices
    • Self on-air collisions proof protocol
    • Self configuring – plug and play
    • RF and time cells organized
    • Management of indoor mobile devices
    • Management of batteries powered end devices (99% of time off line)

CH 1

0-100ms

CH 1

100-200ms

CH 2

400-500ms

CH 2

0-100ms

CH 3

0-100ms

slide10

FUNCTIONAL ARCHITCTURES: A SIMBOLIC OVERVIEW

  • FCU-HI
  • User can set the desired temperature
  • User can set indoor weekly temperature profile
  • User can read the measured indoor temperature
  • The device sends wirelessly the measured temperature to the FCU-CTRL unit
  • Batteriespowered
  • One per flat
  • FCU-CTRL (base station)
  • It is the real Flat Control Unit
  • Directly plugged to the main socket
  • It retrieves the measure of indoor temperature from FCU-HI and WRTS devices
  • It communicates with BCU and Central Server
  • It send opening/closing commands to the BVA
  • It logs measures and events data
  • It is always on line
  • It can be hidden in any place in the flat
slide11

6. FUNCTIONAL ARCHITCTURES: A SIMBOLIC OVERVIEW

  • BVA
  • It actuates the body valve of the radiator on the base of FCU-HI commands
  • It measure the inlet and outlet temperature of the radiator
  • One per radiator
  • Batteries powered
  • WRTS
  • It offers an extra point of measure for the indoor temperature
  • It sent the temperature measure to the FCU-CTRL unit
  • It shows the measured temperature
slide12

6. FUNCTIONAL ARCHITCTURES: A SIMBOLIC OVERVIEW

  • RR
  • Extend the wireless range of communications
  • It is installed one every 2-3 floors in the staircases
  • Main powered
  • Always on line
  • BCU
  • It is the main control unit for the entire EcoThermo installation
  • I retrieve all the system data and log them
  • It communications with the Central Server
  • Itisclose to the heater and control itsworking point

CENTRAL HEATER

slide13

6. FUNCTIONAL ARCHITCTURES: A SIMBOLIC OVERVIEW

WRTS

BVA

FCU-HI

Central Server

RR

FCU-CTRL

BCU

slide14

Roland van Straten

SYSTEM DEVICES

slide15

9. MAIN TASK 4.1: SYSTEM PROTOTYPE DEVICES DESIGN

Roland van Straten

RTD under FP7 Grant context

Studio 1

  • BCU (Building Control Unit) FUNCTIONS (1/2)
    • Communication gateway between the building wireless network and the remote server;
    • Real time response capability to external commands;
    • Storage of the data from all the installation devices (measurements and events);
    • Advanced graphical human interface;
    • High accuracy DAQ capable of sensing up to 16 channels to measure flow rate, differential pressure, temperature of hot water, external environment temperature, metering pulse signals;

Studio 2

MECHANICAL ASSEMBLY STUDIO

Studio 3

slide16

BCU (Building Control Unit) FUNCTIONS (2/2)

    • Control of the Heaters and Circulation Pump working points
    • Primary Coordinator of the Building Wireless Network
    • Capability to Power the Radio Repeaters at Low Voltage
    • Power Back Up Capability For Itself and the Eventually Radio Repeaters
      • for at least 3 days in average Power Demanding Conditions
slide17

BCU COMPONENTS

    • MAIN BOARD
      • CPU 1GHz Cortex-A8
      • Memory RAM 512MB, Flash 512MB
      • Ethernet, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth
      • USB HOST (4)
      • SDCARD
      • Linux (Ubuntu)
      • RS485/RS232
      • 3 Radio Transceivers
      • LCD + Touch up to 1450x1050pixels
      • It enables local and remote management of a complete building with RRs, FCUs and BVAs
slide18

BCU COMPONENTS

    • DAQ
      • 32-Bit Cortex-M3
      • 16 Channel 24-Bit accuracy Analog to Digital Conversion
      • Industrial communication RS485
      • Connection to Main Board: USB
      • 8 Channels of Pt500 Temperature measurement
      • 8 Channels of Voltage (-10/+10V) or Current (4-20mA) measurement
      • Battery Powered
      • Data Logging
      • It measures all physical quantities of the heating system with high accuracy independently
slide19

RR (Radio Repeater) FUNCTIONS

    • Extension of the coverage range of the network
    • Wireless network routing
    • Three RF channels management (main network channel, secondary network channel, service channel)
    • Data storage capability
    • Always on-line device for real time commands transmission (from BCU)

CHASSIS DESIGN SKETCH

slide20

RR COMPONENTS

      • Cortex M3 CPU
      • Memory Flash 512kB
      • Industrial Bus RS485
      • SD Card
      • 3 Radio transceivers
      • Remote and local power
      • Forms the backbone of the communication infrastructure
slide21

FCU (Flat Control UNIT) FUNCTIONS

    • Main user interface for the local (flat/apartment level) control of the system
    • Measurement of the premise ambient temperature
    • Intuitive setting of the desired temperature and mode of operation (manual or automatic with temperature profiles)
    • Management of extra remote wireless temperature sensors and extra independent flat sub-areas
    • Communication with the BCU by wireless radio transceivers
    • Commands to the flat electronic valves (BVA)
    • Local data and events storage

CHASSIS DESIGN SKETCH

slide22

FCU COMPONENTS

    • HUMAN INTERFACE
      • CPU Cortex-M3
      • Temperature Sensor
      • LCD
      • Battery Power
      • Provides the tenant a local human interface to control the indoor temperature settings, monitor the indoor measured temperature and the heating costs
slide23

FCU COMPONENTS

    • BASE UNIT
      • Two RF transceivers
      • Cortex-M3 CPU
      • Offline power supply
      • Data storage
      • The Base Unit acts as a liaison between the wireless network, the FCU human interface and the BVAs. It controls the end devices of same flat.
slide24

BVA (Body Valve Actuator) FUNCTIONS

    • Open and close the radiator body valve
    • Receive wirelessly opening commands from the FCU
    • Measure the radiator inlet and outlet watertemperature
    • Show the device state on a display
    • Perform tampering-proof strategies
    • Batteries power and back-up power source
    • BE READY FOR DOWNGRADED VERSION OF EcoThermo (JUST BVA – PREMISE AIR TEMPERATURE DETECTION AND EXTENDED HUMAN INTERFACE)
    • Ready for external antenna mounting
    • Challenging req.: batteries shall last for real 4 years  strong mechanical design effort

CHASSIS AND ELECTRO-MECHANICAL DESIGN

slide25

BVA COMPONENTS

      • CPU Cortex-M3
      • Motor Driver with Limit Switch
      • DataFlash storage
      • Battery voltage measurement
      • Energy Harvesting input
      • Graphical Display
      • NTC temperature measurement
      • RF Module
      • Proportional opening of the valve
      • Tampering protection
      • RF Transceiver
      • The BVA individually controls each radiator and measure the inlet/outlet temperature
slide26

BVA: MECHANICAL DESIGN

    • A challenging requirement: batteries shall rest for at least 4-5 years, really
    • Estimated a worst case for which BVA
      • open 20 times a day the radiator valve
      • close 20 times a day the radiator valve
      • all the days for 6 months a year
    • To satisfy this performance requirement every actuation must consume a maximum of 0.8J-0.7J (incredibly low)
    • TWO COMPLETE MECHANICAL DESIGN HAS BEEN DONE
    • MAIN PROBLEM: to win the thrust of the opening spring (40N-50N) that keeps the body valve normally open, with very low energy consumption
slide27

WRTS (WIRELESS REMOTE TEMPERATURE SENSOR) FUNCTIONS

    • It measures a premise air temperature
    • It shows the measured temperature and statistics
    • It sends the measured figures to the fcu
    • It stores data and events
    • it is not an essential device for the main functions of EcoThermo
    • it is useful for big flat or flat with retired people to creat independent sub-areas temperature control

CHASSIS SKETCH PRELIMINARY STUDY