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Biology 534 Mr. Taylor

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Biology 534 Mr. Taylor. Required materials Pen, Pencil, Ruler, Eraser, Red Pen Binder (or Exercise books) for notes Duotang (or similar folder) to keep assignments in. You will be assigned a textbook (next week) Make a protective cover for it.

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biology 534 mr taylor
Biology 534Mr. Taylor
  • Required materials
    • Pen, Pencil, Ruler, Eraser, Red Pen
    • Binder (or Exercise books) for notes
    • Duotang (or similar folder) to keep assignments in.
  • You will be assigned a textbook (next week)
    • Make a protective cover for it.
    • You must bring it back in one piece on exam day in June.
  • You will need to buy some materials for your cumulative project in April/May
Emergency Procedures
    • Fire drill (Evacuation/Lockout)
    • Lock-in (Lunch-time safety procedure)
    • Code-Red (Lock-down classrooms)
  • Classroom Procedures
    • Hall Pass
      • Agenda must be filled out and initialled
      • Sheet by fire extinguisher must be completed
    • Handing in assignments (the in-boxes)
    • Late or absent for tests
    • Standard school rules
    • Correcting short exercises
      • Switch forwards, switch backwards, switch partner
      • Fill in all errors with the correct answers in coloured ink
      • Report (Perfect, Satisfactory, Unsatisfactory)
what is biology
What is Biology?
  • Biology is the study of life. It includes:
      • Zoology: Study of animals
      • Botany: Study of plants
      • Microbiology: Study of microscopic life
      • Ecology: Study of the relationships between life and the environment
      • Genetics: The study of how living things reproduce and pass on their genes
      • Biochemistry: Study of the chemistry of life.
so what is life
So What is Life?
  • Life is difficult to define. The living things we know share certain properties:
    • They are made of cells*
    • Have complex organization (molecular & cellular)
    • Ability to use energy (metabolism)
    • They have homeostasis (an internal balance)
    • Ability to grow (by absorbing and transforming nutrients)
    • Ability to reproduce (and pass on genetic information)
    • Ability to move (internally and/or externally)

*Except viruses, which are not considered truly alive by some biologists!

not alive
Not Alive!
  • Crystals.
    • They grow and have complex structures, but none of the other features
  • Computers and robots
    • They are complex and use energy, but they can’t grow or reproduce (at least not yet!)
  • Viruses & Prions*
    • Although they have some characteristics of life, they have too few to be truly alive.

* This is a majority opinion. A few biologists do consider viruses to be living.

  • Quickly scan pages 5-10 of your textbook
  • Find the meaning of the following terms, and write the definitions in your notebook. Remember to date your notes:
    • Biology
    • Homeostasis
    • Autotroph
    • Heterotroph
    • Evolution
    • Ecology
  • During the class discussion you may want to alter or add to your definitions. Leave a little space
characteristics of life
Characteristics of Life
  • Read pages 11-13
  • In your notebook make notes on the properties of life. Remember to date your notes. Use the heading above, and arrange your notes under the following subheadings:
    • Cells
    • Organization
    • Energy use & metabolism
    • Homeostasis
    • Growth
    • Reproduction
lesson 2

Lesson #2

Scientific Methods

scientific methods
Scientific Methods
  • “All Science is based on observation”
  • Making observations is the most important and time-consuming part of any scientific investigation. Observing includes:
    • Noticing things using the senses (qualitative)
    • Measuring things using a variety of instruments (quantitative)
    • Sampling or using representative parts
    • Recording data in an organized way
      • Observations that have been carefully recorded and organized are called data.
  • When you have collected enough data, it is time to find an explanation for what you have observed.
  • A hypothesis is a possible explanation for whatever phenomenon you are investigating.
    • A good hypothesis makes a prediction that can be tested.
  • In order to test a hypothesis, you must often design an experiment.
    • Since biology experiments may involve living things, which are somewhat unpredictable, there are a few special precautions to take.
      • Control group: there should be some organisms that you don’t test, but just use for comparison.
      • Single variable: You should only test one thing at a time. Don’t vary several conditions at once.
      • Sample size: you should perform an experiment on enough organisms that a problem with a single individual won’t throw off your results much.
  • From your observations and experimentation you eventually want to find a useful conclusion.
  • Eventually you may formulate a theory.
    • A theory is NOT a wild guess!! Anyone who uses the word this way does not understand science. A theory is always supported by evidence, and is usually the BEST EXPLANATION that we have developed for a particular set of observations.

Anyone who uses the expression “It’s only a theory”

Doesn’t know what a theory really is!

  • When you have made a discovery, it is important to share it with others so they can examine and verify your results for themselves.
    • In class we write up reports of our activities.
    • University researchers publish their results in scientific journals, to be “peer reviewed”
    • Privately sponsored researchers give reports to the companies that funded them, which are eventually made public.
  • Read the section (pp.14-20) in your textbook, and then in your notebook list each phase of the scientific method.
  • Write a brief explanation of how the search for the cause of Ebola represents an example of each phase.
    • Be sure to explain what the cause of Ebola is.
lesson 3

Lesson #3

Chemistry and Life

lesson 3 chemistry and life
Lesson #3Chemistry and Life
  • Atoms smallest observable particles of matter (atoms are made of protons, neutrons and electrons, but these subatomic particles are too small to be observed with a S.T.E.M.)
  • Each type of atom is called an element (eg: C, H, O, N, Ca, Na)
  • A molecule is a group of atoms (eg: H2O, CO2, C6H12O6, etc.
  • Macromolecules are large molecules formed from patterns of smaller molecules (eg. DNA, starches, proteins)
  • Elements important to life
    • Carbon C “backbone” of organic chemistry
    • Oxygen O important for energy exchange
    • Hydrogen H an abundant element
    • Nitrogen N important in proteins
    • Calcium Ca compounds in bones and teeth
    • Sodium Na ions in nerve tissues
    • Iron Fe in blood (hemoglobin)
    • Potassium K in nerves
    • Magnesium Mg compounds in bones and teeth
  • An atom with an electrical charge is called an ion:

Na Na+

Sodium atomsodium ion

Cl Cl-

Chlorine atomchlorine ion

Ions that are dissolved in blood and cytoplasm as well as in nerve tissue are important to most organisms.



acids and bases
Acids and Bases
  • Some ionic compounds produce Hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water. These are called acids
  • Some ionic compounds produce hydroxide ions (OH-). These are called bases or alkalis
  • Acid propertiesBase properties
    • Low pH (below 7) - High pH (above 7)
    • Litmus  red - Litmus  blue
    • Phenolphthalein  clear - phenolphthalein  red
    • Sour or tangy taste - bitter or soapy taste
    • React with metals - slippery feel
    • React with carbonates - emulsifies fats and oils
acid base formulas optional enrichment
Acid Base formulas(optional enrichment)
  • It is often stated that acid formulas begin with H and base formulas end with OH.
    • H2SO4, HCl, HNO3, HI are acids
    • NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)2 are bases
  • Mostly this is true, but there are some exceptions.
    • C2H5OH and CH3OH are alcohols (neutral)
    • CH3COOH, C2H5COOH are organic acids (weak)
    • H2O and H2O2are covalent compounds (neutral)
  • Most biologically important chemicals are very large molecules that contain carbon atoms
  • Carbon atoms can join together in chains, branches, and even rings.
  • Large organic molecules contain smaller “functional groups”. These are like clusters of atoms, like small molecules within the larger molecules.
  • Contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen with a ratio of 2 hydrogen to one oxygen
  • Simple carbohydrates (monosaccharides) include:
    • glucose (C6H12O6)
    • galactose (C6H12O6)
    • fructose(C6H12O6)
    • ribose (C5H10O5)
  • Disaccharides
    • 2 monosaccharides joined
    • eg. Sucrose (sugar), lactose (milk sugar)
  • Polysaccharides
    • Many monosaccarides joined
    • Eg. Starches, glycogen


Same formula

Different structure

  • Proteins are composed of the twenty common amino acids
  • Amino acids contain nitrogen, as well as carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
  • The bonds that link amino acids together are called peptide bonds.
  • Protein molecules can be large and very complex in shape
  • Proteins form structural materials of cells and enzymes
  • Lipids include oils, fats, waxes and sterols
  • Fats and oils contain twice the amount of energy by weight as carbohydrates or proteins.
  • Most lipids are triglycerides.
    • Glycerine
    • 3 fatty acids
  • Others are phospholipids and sterols
    • Sterols form the structure of some hormones
    • Sterols are also called steroids (especially the ones that are from synthetic sources)

Fatty Acid

Fatty Acid


Fatty Acid

phospholipid sterol

nucleic acids
Nucleic Acids
  • Nucleic acids are made from four types of nucleotide which contain nitrogenous bases, phosphate and ribose (a sugar)
    • Adenine
    • Guanine
    • Cytosine
    • Thymine
  • They are large molecules responsible for our genetic information and for synthesizing proteins

The four



dna close up

Click on image for video clip.

  • Everything is made of atoms & molecules
  • Living things are made of organic molecules that contain carbon
  • The four most important classes of organic compounds are:
    • Carbohydrates– sugars, glycogens and starches…
      • made of simple sugars (monosaccharides)
    • Proteins – structural proteins and enzymes …
      • made of the 20 amino acids
    • Lipids – fats, oils and waxes…
      • made of fatty acids or sterols with glycerine or phosphate
    • Nucleic acids – DNA and RNA…
      • made of the 4 nucleotides (nitrogenous bases)
chapter 3 exercises
Chapter 3 Exercises
  • Read pages 49-60
  • Answer questions # 1 to 25 on page 62
answers to exercises
Answers to Exercises
  • 1. Proteins are made of amino acids. The bonds between the amino acids (that keep the proteins together) are called peptide bonds.
  • 2. Monosaccarides are simple sugars. They are joined together to make disaccharides (2 monosaccharides) or polysaccharides (more than 2 monosaccharides)
  • 3. Polypeptides are held together by peptide bonds.
    • Large polypeptide chains are also called proteins.
  • 4. Hydrophilic substances are attracted water (are water-loving) and hydrophobic substances do not interact with water (are water-fearing)
  • 5. The cell membrane is called a bilayer because it is made up of two layers of phospholipids.
answers to exercise
Answers to Exercise
  • 6. d) water helps keep the temperature stable.
  • 7. b) a feature of a polar compound is that its molecules have uneven distribution of charge.
  • 8. c) the element that bonds to itself is carbon.
  • 9. a) plants store glucose as starch
  • 10. c) a strong molecule in plants is cellulose
  • 11. c) a dipeptide is formed
  • 12. b) lipids do not dissolve easily in water
  • 13. d) steroids are not made of fatty acids
  • 14. c) most enzymes are proteins
  • 15. c) DNA stores hereditary information
16. The parts of a nucleotide are:
      • A. a phosphate group
      • B. a nitrogenous base (adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine)
      • C. a sugar molecule (ribose or deoxyribose)
  • 17. Isomers are compounds with a single chemical formula, but different structures.
  • 18. Like water, alcohols are polar covalent compounds that can form hydrogen bonds
  • 19. A condensation reaction builds up large molecules by removing water, a hydrolysis reaction splits up large molecules.
20. a diagram to show how enzymes work…, eg:
  • 21. The carboxyl end of a fatty acid is hydrophilic, the hydrocarbon end is hydrophobic
  • 22. Triglycerides have 3 fatty acids, phospholipids have 2 fatty acids, steroids have carbon rings instead of fatty acids. Steroids are different from the other two.
  • 23. ATP is a molecule that transfers energy in cells

Or any diagram

similar to the one

on page 57

24. Waxes are waterproof, which helps them protect many organisms from drying out.
  • 25. Phospholipids form much of the membrane of all cells (the lipid bilayer)


(flagellated protozoan)


(ciliated protozoan)


(shapeless protozoan)

Protozoa will be very small. Even on medium power they can still look quite tiny in your microscope field.


Algae will be quite small, but usually larger than protozoa

They will have a greenish or yellowish tint.

insect larva
Insect Larva

Insect Larvae are larger than protozans. Larger ones will fill your microscope field on medium power. Sometimes they have six little legs.

daphnia water fleas
Daphnia(water fleas)

Daphnia are larger than protozoa or algae. They are easily mistaken

For insect larvae (but they don’t have the six little legs)

flat and round worms
Flat and Round Worms





The flat and round worms are quite a bit bigger.

A planarian may fill your microscope field, even on low power, and nematodes vary in size from microscopic to over a foot long.

  • Attachment stalk at one end