Bellringer In what ways does the Indian Ocean reflect the changing balance of power during the Early Modern period?
The Fragmentation of Western Christendom • The Protestant Reformation
Corruption of the Medieval Catholic Church • Popes used excommunication to force monarchs to obey the Church. • Many priests were illiterate or broke vows of chastity. • Some officials lead lives of luxury and leisure. • Some clergy: • Charged repentant Christians to see holy remains and objects. • Sold church offices to the highest bidder. • Sold indulgences.
Why did Luther question Church practices and teachings? • Troubled by the idea that salvation was attainable through good works. • Interpreted St. Paul to mean that path to salvation was by faith alone. • Believed forgiveness for sins could come only from God’s mercy. • Angered by sale of indulgences.
How did his criticisms expand into an effort to form a new church? • Wrote 95 Theses to start debate on Church abuses. • Published books and pamphlets questioning Church teachings. • Ideas for reform led to a new church: • Congregations choose their own ministers • Worship of saints and holy days was considered sinful • Mass conducted in German instead of Latin • Clergy allowed to marry.
Why did his reforms create widespread revolt in Germany? • Peasants, believing everyone was equal under God, revolted against lords. • Princes, who wanted freedom from the pope, seized Church land.
Doctrines of Lutheranism • The Bible is the final authority for faith • The Bible is translated into the languages of the people • whatever is not expressly forbidden in scripture can be accepted • There should be only two sacraments (sanctifies by grace) • baptism • communion
The Reformation Spreads Throughout Europe • Why did Protestantism spread beyond Germany? • Political leaders looked for ways to escape power of Catholic Church. • People were tired of Church abuses and corruption. • Charismatic individuals questioned Church teachings and provided leadership. • Rising literacy rate allowed for rapid spread of new ideas.
How did the Catholic Church respond to the Reformation? • Reformed the Church from Within • Had Church abuses catalogued. • Called meeting at Trent to deal with growth of Protestantism. • Council of Trent (1545-1563) • Defined Catholic beliefs and corrected abuses. • Sale of indulgences prohibited. • Seminaries established to train parish priests. • Monasteries and convents cleansed of immoral clergy.
Tried to Stop the Spread of Protestantism • Jesuits (1540) • Disciplined and well-educated order of Catholic priests. • Won Poland and southern Germany back into the Catholic faith. • Spread the Christian message across Africa, Asia, and the Americas. • Inquisition (1542) • Church court designed to judge and convict heretics. • Imprisoned exiled or executed those with unorthodox views • Index of Banned Books (1559) • List of banned books which Catholics were forbidden to read. • List included Protestant Bibles and some scientific writing.
The Fragmentation of Western Christendom • Witch-Hunts and Religious Wars • 110,000 trials for witchcraft • Religious conflict in France and Spain • The Thirty Years’ War
Economics? • What is “economics”? • What are some basic principles of economics?
Characteristics of Postclassical Economy • Manorialism • Subsistence farming = serfs • Lords live off of taxes • “Old Money” based on landownership and tradition • Small guilds develop to encourage artisanry
Characteristics of Early Modern Economy • Mercantilism • Economic health of a nation could be measured by the amount of gold or silver it possessed • Favorable balance of trade • Each nation must try to achieve economic self-sufficiency • A large population was needed to provide a domestic labor force to people the colonies. • Luxury items should be avoided • They took money out of the economy unnecessarily. • State action was needed to regulate and enforce all of these economic policies. • State-sponsored trade monopolies.
Characteristics of Mercantilism Manufactured goods MotherCountry Capital Colony Cheap labor Raw materials
Characteristics of Early Modern Economy • Proto-Industrialization / Putting-Out System • Building of manufacturing income in rural areas • Source of supplemental income (cottage industries) • Sign of modern industrial society
Advantages of Putting-Out System • Peasants could supplement their agricultural incomes. • Take advantage of winter months when farming was impossible. • Merchants could avoid the higher wages and often demanding regulations of urban labor. • Easier to reduce the number of workers when the economy was bad. • Merchants could acquire capital, which would later play a part in funding industrialization itself. • Young people could start separate households earlier, thus contributing to population growth.
Disadvantage of Putting-Out System When demand rose [which it did in the 18c] this system proved inefficient. • Merchant-capitalists found it difficult to induce peasant-workers to increase their output.
Rise of the Nation State • Loyalty to nation rather than to ruler • Ruler governed through natural contract with people • Government worked for the interests of the people
Flow Chart In order to: show the connection between events in Early Modern Europe & ways that Europe was transformed socially, politically, & economically • Groups of 4: • One person specialize in: • Renaissance • Reformation & Commercial Revolution • Scientific Revolution • Enlightenment • Look for the social, political, & economic causes and effects of your specialized topic • As a group, discuss the causes & effects. Then, create a flow chart of visuals to show connections & transformation