Number Functions

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# Number Functions - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Number Functions. Review. single-row character functions character case-manipulation functions LOWER, UPPER, INITCAP character-manipulation functions CONCAT, SUBSTR, LENGTH, INSTR LPAD, RPAD TRIM REPLACE. What Will I Learn?. single-row number functions ROUND, TRUNC, and MOD

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## PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Number Functions' - callia

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### Number Functions

Review
• single-row character functions
• character case-manipulation functions
• LOWER, UPPER, INITCAP
• character-manipulation functions
• CONCAT, SUBSTR,
• LENGTH, INSTR
• TRIM
• REPLACE
What Will I Learn?
• single-row number functions
• ROUND, TRUNC, and MOD
• Distinguish between TRUNC and ROUND when they are applied to a numeric value
• State the implications for business when applying TRUNC and ROUND to numeric values
Why Learn It?
• One of the reasons we put our money in a bank is to take advantage of the interest it accumulates over time.
• Banks adjust the interest rate with various economic indicators such as inflation and the stock market.
• Typically, interest rates are expressed as a percent such as 3.45%.
Why Learn It?
• What if a bank decided to round the percentage rate to 3.5%? Would it be to your advantage?
• What if they decided to just drop the decimal values and calculate the interest at 3%, would you be happy then?
• Rounding and truncating numbers play an important part in business and in turn with the databases that support these businesses as they store and access numeric data.
number functions
• accept numeric input and return numeric values
• The three number functions are:
• ROUND
• TRUNC
• MOD
ROUND
• Used to round numbers to a specified number of decimal places.
• ROUND can also be used to round numbers to the left of the decimal point.
• ROUND can also be used with dates.
• Syntax
• ROUND(column|expression, decimal places)

select round(2.55,1) from dual;

ROUND
• If the number of decimal places is a positive number, the number is rounded to that number of decimal places.
• If the number of decimal places is a negative number, numbers to the left of the decimal are rounded.
• if the number of decimal places is not specified or is zero, the number will round to no decimal places.
ROUND
• For NUMBER values, the value n is rounded away from 0 (for example, to x+1 when x.5 is positive and to x-1 when x.5 is negative).
• For BINARY_FLOAT and BINARY_DOUBLE values, the function rounds to the nearest even value. Please refer to the examples that follow.
TRUNC
• Used to terminate the column,expression, or value to a specified number of decimal places.
• TRUNC can also be used with dates.
• Syntax
• TRUNC(column|expression, decimal places)
• TRUNC (45.926, 2) yields 45.92
• if the TRUNC expression does not specify the number of decimal places or specifies a zero, the number is truncated to zero decimal places.
• TRUNC (45.926) yields 45
TRUNC
• For NUMBER and BINARY_FLOAT and BINARY_DOUBLE values, the rule is the same now.
MOD
• Used to return the remainder when one number is divided by another.
• For example, the MOD of 5 divided by 2 = 1.
MOD
• Returns n2 if n1 is 0.
• This function behaves differently from the classical mathematical modulus function when m is negative. The classical modulus can be expressed using the MOD function with this formula:

m - n * FLOOR(m/n)

FLOOR(n) returns largest integer equal to or less than n.

MOD
• MOD can be used to determine whether a value is odd or even.
• If MOD(n,2) equals 0,n is even
• If MOD(n,2) equals 1,n is odd

SELECT last_name, salary

FROM f_staffs

WHERE MOD(salary, 2)=0;

• The above query will show the staffs whose salary is an even

number.

Terminology
• Key terms used in this lesson include:
• Number functions
• MOD
• ROUND
• TRUNC
Summary
• Select and apply the single-row number functions ROUND, TRUNC, and MOD in a SQL query
• Distinguish between the results obtained when TRUNC is applied to a numeric value and ROUND is applied to a numeric value
• State the implications for business when applying TRUNC and ROUND to numeric values