notes from the history of science n.
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george sarton
  • “History of civilization is the history of science. The reason lies in the fact that the main difference between today’s civilization and the antiquity is the scientific knowledge. Saints of today are no different than the ancient ones. Today’s artists are no more skillful than the ancient ones.”
george sarton1
  • “But the knowledge of our scientists is much more and deeper. So, one of the most cumulative human activity is science. Thus, the most important difference between the two civilizations is in the levels of the scientific knowledge.”
sun centered system
Sun Centered System
  • Collected Observations

(Zic: Astronomic almanac)

giordano bruno 1548 1600
Giordano Bruno (1548-1600)
  • Supported Copernicus,
  • “Libertes philosophica”, supported free thinking,
  • Burned in Rome.
  • Starts with Kepler: Born,27 Dec.1571 near Stutgart , Lutheran, studied theology inTübingen University to be a priest but perfect in mathematics and astronomy.

Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)

  • Instead of becoming a priest, accepted a position as teacher of mathematics and Astronomy in Graz,Austria (later Graz University) (1594-1600).
  • Universe is an image of God.
  • Tycho Brahe (who corrected Copernicus-zic by careful observations) invited him to Prag on Jan. 1,1600 (1600-1612).
  • Brahe died on 24 Oct., 1601.
  • Kepler takes his position and data, and starts to work on the trajectory of Mars.
freedom of the mind
Freedom of the Mind!
  • Works on Mars data till 1605.
  • After 5 years in vain, abondons the idea of church, that favors circular orbits,
  • And discovers elliptical orbits!
galileo galilei 1564 1642
  • Galileo Galilei, observes Jupiter’s moons in University of Padua(1610), with his telescope, contrary to the views of the church.
  • Supports Copernicus,
  • Does experiments on the motion of objects.

Galileo Galilei(1564-1642)


“You cannot learn physics from the holly books. You have to do experiments for this.

You can only learn how to be a good person.”

scientific revolution
Scientific Revolution

1543 Copernicus,

1609, 1619 Kepler,

1610 Galileo,

1620 Bacon

1637 Descartes,

1686 Newton

150 years, to abolish 2000 years old Aristoteles-Physics,Ptolemaios-Astronomy,İbn-i Sina – Medicine.

friction of molecules
Friction of Molecules
  • Micromachines gearing up? Microscopic gears may stick or grind to a halt because of novel kinds of friction at the molecular level.
  • A. R. Burns, J. E. Houston, R. W. Carpick, and T. A. MichalskePhys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1181(issue of 8 February 1999)
reducing friction without oil
Reducing Friction without Oil
  • Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 126101 (2004)
  • Hair trigger. The "Tribolever" device can sense atomic scale forces on its tip in all three dimensions. Tribolever experiments demonstrated a regime of extreme slipperiness between the tip and surface
how to grab an atom
How to Grab an Atom
  • Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 176102 (2003)
  • Now you see it, now you don't. Researchers used the tip of an atomic force microscope to lift a single atom from a surface (above, before and after) and then replace it (not shown). The method works with non-conducting materials, unlike past atom manipulation techniques.
the magic of nanoclusters
The Magic of Nanoclusters
  • Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 066101 (2002)
  • Clusters everywhere. Billions of identical metal clusters can spontaneously form on a silicon surface. Each triangle contains six indium atoms. (With more indium, the clusters fill in some of the empty space, making complete rows and columns of triangles.) The nanoclusters may be useful for electronic devices, for data storage, or for fostering chemical reactions.
  • Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 951 (2000)
  • Air-cleaning crystal. The first atomic-scale images of nanocrystals that help reduce pollution show a surprising triangular, rather than hexagonal, shape. The new information should help researchers improve the chemical process
molecular conductivity takes shape
Molecular Conductivity Takes Shape
  • Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 176804 (2002)
  • Mind the gap. By breaking a tiny gold bridge (shown in false color), researchers make electrodes for driving current through a single molecule. Now they have shown a specific way in which the molecule's shape affects its conductivity.
  • The fullerenes are a family of molecules with a closed cage of carbon atoms arranged in pentagons and hexagons. Each carbon is sp2 hybridized.
  • The most symmetrical member is buckminsterfullerene, C60.
  • Buckminsterfullerenes show potential for applications in superconductivity and catalytic activity.
nanotube electronics
Nanotube Electronics

Chips made from tubes.

Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 79 (1999)

  • Chips made from tubes. Adding atoms (blue and red) to an all-carbon nanotube makes the nanoworld equivalent of a semiconductor junction--the basis for computer chips
nanotubes under stress
Nanotubes Under Stress
  • HandeUstunel/Cornell Univ.
  • Springy Nanotubes. A carbon nanotube, when pressed in the middle, will stretch like a rubber band. According to experiments, the stretching modifies the quantum states available to electrons, which alters the nanotube's electrical resistance.
molecular beam epitaxy mbe
Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE)
  • Substrate wafers transferred to high vacuum growth chamber (red arrow)
  • Elements kept in K-Cells at high temp
  • Shutters over cells open to release vaporized elements, which deposit on sample

Adapted from: Farrow, R.F.C., ed. Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Applications to Key Materials. Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, NJ, 1995.

reduced dimensionality























Reduced Dimensionality

Confining the electron motion in at least one spatial dimension affects the energy levels and the density of states…

Based on Bimberg (1999)

madrasah university in islamic world
MADRASAHUniversity in Islamic World

First: in Buhara 937, Faracek,

1067 Bağdat: Nizamiye medreseleri,

13th century Selçuk: Konya, Sivas, Kayseri,whole anatolia,

Ottoman: 1331 İznik,Bursa, Edirne, İstanbul

madrasah curriculum
  • Ulum-u Nakliye: fıkıh, hadis, kelam, tefsir
  • Ulum-u Akliye:

matematik, astronomi,

university in the west
University in the West
  • 1088 Bologna,
  • 1160 Paris,
  • 1167 Oxford,
  • 1200-1215 Montpellier, Padua, Orleans, Cambridge
  • North : Prag(1347), Karakov(1364), Viyana(1365), Heidelberg(1385), Kopenhag (1475), Uppsala(1477)
  • No similar development towards east...Byzantium ?
university curriculum
  • Trivium: (Rhetoric, Logic, Gramer);
  • Quadrivium: (Arithmetics- Geometry, Physics, Astronomy , Music)
madrasah in turkestan
Madrasah in Turkestan
  • Great men of science at the beginning:
  • Farabi(870-950),
  • İbn-i Sina (Avicenna) (980-1037).
mam gazal 1058 1111
İMAM GAZALİ(1058-1111)
  • His book: “Tehafüt-ül Felasife: Felsefenin Tutarsızlığı”,Philosophy is not useful,
  • Everything is in Quran.
  • No need to do any research.
bn r d averroes 1126 1198
İBN-İ RÜŞD (AVERROES)(1126-1198)
  • His book: “Tehafüt-ül Tehafüt: Tutarsızlığın Tutarsızlığı”. In Spain, Averroes critisizes Gazali; “Using your mind, you can reach the truth and the religous belief.”
  • West,prospers along İbn-iRüşd’sphilosophy.
  • But Madrasah goes along with İmam Gazali.
should we include bn r d ideas
Should we include İBN-İ RÜŞD ideas?
  • Question comes from the great conqurer.
the result of the discussion
The Result of the Discussion

Everybody says “Gazali”, including his own teacher (HocazadeEfendi), except Alaaddin from Tus, who favors İbn-iRüşd.

Ottoman Madrasah keeps teaching only Gazali.

l tf from tokat
  • A teacher at madrasah, during the reign of Beyazıt II, is quoted saying: “Those who do not know geometry, can not judge correctly”
  • He is judged, in a tribunal under the presidency of “Sheikh ul-Islam ” and,
  • He is hanged Dec. 24,1494 at “At Meydanı”.
ebu suud efend
  • Sheikh ul-Islam between 1545 –1574,
  • He is instrumental in Sultan Süleyman’s receiving the title of Kanuni.
  • He is trying to establish the state’s justice systemin a scientific manner.
mehmed from b rg
  • In the same period, Mehmed Efendi from Birgi, is in favor of returning to the basics of islam.
  • He divides the sciences into two groups.
  • “Useful” which is the teachings of islam.
  • “Harmful”all positive sciences and logos(kelam).
  • All madrasahs are under Sheikh ul-Islam.
tak yudd n observatory
  • Müneccimbaşı Takiyyüddin (B: 1526 Egypt) convinces Murat III, to build an observatory on the hills of Tophane in1577.
  • A student of Birgili, Sheikh ul-Islam Kadızade, using the appearence of a comet, and epidemy of plague starting at 1578, convinces the Sultan that this is a result of watching the skys.
  • Observatory is demolished on 22 Ocak 1580.
  • A real start of going backwards.
  • This starts our dark ages that includes: 16th 17th centuries and the first half of 18th century.
military defeats
  • Russian navy destroys Ottoman navy in Çeşme in 1770.
  • The attack is being expected from the Black Sea, nobody checks the map of Piri Reis.
a wa k e ning
  • After only the defeats of this order, the reason is found as the lack of knowledge. This brought the need for new establishments.
  • The first educational institute established is Mühendishane–i Bahri–i Hümayun in1773, which is the base of today’s İstanbul Technical University.
  • The curriculum in this navy school was basically the natural sciences.
dar lf nun i in the ottoman empire
DARÜLFÜNUN I in the Ottoman Empire
  • Reform and reorganization (İslahatveTanzimat) starts.
  • Darülfünun is established on July 23, 1846.
  • But it failed due to lack of interest on the part of students.
dar lf nun ii
"Darülfünun-u Osmani"is established on February 20, 1870.

But this time it was the inedaquacy of the teaching staff and books that caused the closure in 1872.

dar lf nun iii
Darülfünun-u Sultani is established atGalatasarayin 1874, with Literature, Law, and Science Departments.

The lectures were in Turkish and French.

There is no information about this institution after 1881.

dar lf nun iv
Darülfunun-u Şahane (İmparatorlukÜniversitesi) is established September 1 1900 with departments of religion, mathematics and literature.

Under heavy scuritiny of the the Empire, it was not successful.

dar lf nun v
Meşrutiyet (constitutional Monarchy) is declared.

İstanbulDarülfünun is then established on April 20, 1912, with departments of Law, Medicine, Literature and Religion.

But, it had the form of a madrasah, rather than a modern University..

atat rk

Dünyada herşey için, hayat için başarı için en gerçek yol gösterici bilimdir, fendir. Bilim ve fenin dışında yol gösterici aramak gaflettir,cahilliktir, doğru yoldan sapmaktır.

Bilim ve fen nerede ise oradan alacağız ve her millet ferdinin kafasına koyacağız.

ak l ve bilimi rehber al n z
Akıl ve bilimi rehber alınız

Ben, manevî miras olarak hiçbir ayet, hiçbir dogma, hiçbir donmuş ve kalıplaşmış kural bırakmıyorum. Benim manevî mirasım bilim ve akıldır.

Benden sonra, beni benimsemek isteyenler, bu temel eksen üzerinde akıl ve bilimin rehberliğini kabul ederlerse manevî mirasçılarım olurlar.

Hiçbir zaman hatırlarınızdan çıkmasın ki, Cumhuriyet, sizden fikri hür, vicdanı hür, irfanı hür nesillerister.


1933 university reform
Atatürk’s notes on Prof. Albert Malche report(29.05.1932)

Students should know foreign languages,

President of the University should be concerned with scientific matters. An administrator is needed for administrative business.

The weakest point in Darülfünun is the education that is not cultivating research skills in students.,

Library should be improved.

1933 University Reform
stanbul university
  • 1933 Law No. 2252 abolishes Darülfünunand establishes a new İstanbulUniversity.
  • Istanbul University is thus the first university of the young Republic which opened on August 1, 1933.
  • As the Republic celebrates the 10th anniversity, academic year starts in the new university on November1,1933.
einstein s letter
Einstein’s Letter
  • At September 17, 1933 letter from Einstein to Prime Minister Ismet Inonu pleaded for Turkey to invite "fourty experienced specialists and prominent scholars... to settle and practice in your country."
andreas bertholan schwarz 1886 1953
Andreas Bertholan Schwarz(1886-1953)

He was a professor of Roman and Civil Law at the University of Leipzig. He then transferred to the University of Zurich and in 1929 moved to the University of Freiburg from which he was dismissed in 1933. He immigrated to Turkey in 1934 and was appointed as professor in the same field at the Law Faculty of the University of Istanbulwhere he remained until 1950 when he became guest professor at the University of Freiburg.Schwarz died in Freiburg in 1953. By advising parliamentary commissions and submitting several memoranda for the required changes, he played a significant role in modernizing Turkey’s civil laws during the 1930s,which brought a deep-rooted progress. He trained an entire generation of Turkish legal scholars.

ernst eduard hirsch 1902 1985
came to Turkey in 1933 after being dismissed from the University of Frankfurt am Main and declining an offer from the University of Amsterdam, which probably saved him from Nazi persecution when Germany invaded Holland. Ernst Eduard Hirsch (1902-1985)
fritz neumark
Fritz Neumark

was born in 1900 in Hanover, Germany.Among the four émigréshe was perhaps the most important contributor to the modernization of Turkey’s public sector. He was dismissed from the University of Frankfurt on September 1, 1933 and left Frankfurt on September 22 of the same year. He went to Switzerland and in the presence of the Turkish Ambassador CemalHüsnü in Geneva signed a renewable five-year contract (October 15, 1933 to October 15, 1938) to teach social hygiene and statistics.

modern turkish universities
Modern Turkish Universities
  • Are products of the new Republic, not a continuation of old Darül-fünun.
i hope i have shown that
I hope I have shown that
  • events do not happen in an arbitrary manner, but that they reflect a certain underlying order...
what should we do
A civilization in Turkey that does not rely on science cannot compete with the representatives of modern civilization...WHAT SHOULD WE DO?...
what should we do1
What should we do?
  • Educating yourself is your own responsibility.
  • We should work hard and with love, to educate ourselves in our fields of specialization,
  • We should take our education seriously, trying to be world class scholars,
  • We should enlighten ourselves, by not graduating solely as technicians.
  • We should support our universities.