Ruby Payne Teaching Strategies Research-Based Strategies: Narrowing the Achievement Gap for Under-Resourced Learners
Vocabulary – Let’s think about why students may have issues with it…
Fostering Student Engagement What can teachers do to foster student engagement and create positive peer culture? “When working with kids (or adults) who come from difficult backgrounds … you’ve really got to understand these kids. You’ve got to understand what they don’t understand and what their misunderstandings are, and you’ve got to have the confidence to say, ‘If these children tell me what they are thinking, I can clear up any confusions that they have.’” –Ronald Ferguson Recent Research on the Achievement Gap with Ronald Ferguson. Harvard Education Letter. November/December 2006. www.edletter.org/current/ferguson.shtml
Ruby’s Response To This: • More than 80% of kids in any classroom say they plan to do their best all year long—if you ask them in the fall. • Do adults do this too? • We need to give teachers the learning techniques that help them reach and teach some of the kids they are struggling to understand. We must make an effort if we want kids to persist and do their best work all year.
What is Content Comprehension? • We want more than just “understanding” information, content comprehension is also understanding content so we may “manipulate” it. • (Blooms) – what is the highest level? • Applying content comprehension to Language Arts: • Purpose – to study the structure of language • Structures – genres, (poetry, drama, etc.) • Patterns – units of study • Processes – reading, writing, speaking, filmmaking and listening.
Once a student has accomplished content comprehension, the teacher then may spend the bulk of the time teaching the use and manipulation of the content. • Then this leads to higher order questioning and learning.
So What??? Instead of asking : “what color was the girl’s dress” you can ask “What specific techniques did the writer use to make the reader feel empathetic toward the girl?”
Mental Models Cont. • When mental models (graphic organizers) are directly taught, abstract information can be learned much more quickly and retained because the mind has a way to contain or hold it.
Mental Model Beginning Learner Skilled Learner • Abstract respresentational world – formal schooling • Expertise • Sensory-based, situated learning • Tied to what is already known When a great discrepancy exists between the way the learner creates understanding and the way the expert communicates understanding, failure results.
Asking Questions • Many of our students speak in a “Casual Register” and they also do not know how to ask questions. • To do any task, one must be able to go inside his/her head and ask questions and if s/he cannot ask questions, then the information cannot be retreived in a systematic way. (And of course this can lead to escalation!)
Asking Questions • Ways to teach students to ask questions: • Play “Jeopardy” – this exercise involves the student forming the answer in the form of a question • For young students teach them to start questions with who, what, when, where, which or how • Have students write their own questions in multiple-choice answers • Always have students explain why the wrong answers on a MC test are wrong.
Tried and true: • Instead of having the students answer questions at the end of the chapter, have the students ask their own questions from the chapter. • Research shows that if by the end of the 2nd grade, a student cannot ask questions, it could impact his/her reading. • If a student cannot ask questions with purpose it will be difficult for him/her to raise his/her reading level past the 3rd grade. • Keep in mind, in poverty, sometimes if kids ask questions, they get slapped! • Studies show that by students asking questions as a part of learning, scores will go up!
Writing a Multiple Choice Question Question: a. b. c. d. Three Rules: • One wrong-answer choice must be funny • Only one answer choice can be right • May not use “all of the above,” “none of the above”, etc.
Question Stems FOR Fifth- and Ninth-Grade Reading In paragraph _____, what does _____ mean? Paragraph _____ is mainly about _____. From the article, the reader can tell … From the passage, the reader can tell … From the paragraph, the reader can tell … From what the reader learns about _____, which statement does not make sense? How does _____ feel? Why is it important … Which of these is the best summary of the selection? Look at this web (flow chart, graph, charts, etc.). Which detail belongs in the empty space? An idea present in both selections is … One way these selections are alike is … One way these selections are different is … Paragraph _____ is important because it helps the reader understand … The reader can tell when _____, he/she will probably … How does _____ feel?
Question Stems FOR Fifth- and Ninth-Grade Reading In paragraph _____, why is _____ sad? (happy, confused, angry, etc.) What is this article mainly about? What can the reader tell about _____ from information in this article? The author builds suspense by … One way this story resembles a fable is that … In paragraph _____, the author uses the word _____ to emphasize _____. Which of the following words is a synonym (antonym) for the word _____ in paragraph _____? What is the overall theme expressed in this article? Which of the following sentences from the article explains the author’s primary conflict? The audience that would probably relate most to the article’s central message would be … Why … How ... (continued)
Social Studies question Stem Starters • Elementary (K–4) • What does the map (chart, drawing, timeline, graph) illustrate? • Which statement BEST explains (summarizes) _____? • What was the main cause of _____? • One advantage of _____ is _____. • The primary function (purpose, goal, objective) of _____ is _____. • Which of the following were consequences of _____? • What is the BEST definition of _____? • Which of these is a past (current) trend in _____? • Approximately when did _____ occur? • Which date is associated with _____? • Which of these statements explains how _____? • What is an example of _____? • Which of these would be the BEST solution to _____?
Social Studies question Stem Starters Secondary (Grades 5–12) How are different ways of life determined by location? How do/did _____ adapt to their environment? How are/were the roles of the _____ different from the _____? What circumstances led to changes in the lives of _____? What would happen to the _____ civilization if _____? How are the _____ and the _____ similar and different? What connects the grouping? What was the response by _____ to the _____? How did the actions of _____ conflict with _____? How did the _____ feel about _____? What is the correct sequence for the events?
Strategies • Students ask questions, open ended, multiple choice, on content at least 2 times a week. • Use the stems to create the questions. • Use the outline to create multiple choice questions • Always have students identify why answers are wrong
How can this help your students? • This is working toward students asking more and more complex questions. This can help them in the future to resolve conflict and plan. • This evolves into self-talk and being able to create order and process. “… first I need to do this, next…”
Reading Non-Fiction • It has been found that when individuals do not have a systematic way to do anything they miss up to 50% of the data. • This could be an issue when reading non-fiction!!
Activity: • Use the “Reading Strategies” with “The Wonder of Mughal Agra” and label the article.
Answer the questions • Did this help you with your comprehension?? • As always… design your own process!
Another Strategy… Let’s Box! The local high school is putting on the play “West Side Story”. Mrs. Falbo bought 9 adult tickets and 5 children’s tickets for the recital. The total she paid was $67. Mrs. Ustinov bought 7 adult tickets and paid $38.50. How much does each type of ticket cost? A) adult = $7.44; children’s = $13.40 B) adult = $5.50; children’s = $3.50 C) adult = $6.59; children’s = $7.70 D) adult = $3.50; children’s = $5.50 E) adult = $13.40; children’s = $47.44
Sketching for Vocabulary • If a student cannot sketch a word, they likely do not know it • Idea: • Divide the paper into two columns • Write a word in the first column and then draw a picture or a visual representation of the word with an explanation. • This creates a very fast way to teach vocabulary. • (This also works with a graphic organizer)
Draw and create a phrase for what one of the following terms mean to you: • Isosceles Triangle • Scalene Triangle • Rhombus • Vertices
Same Same Different I often see a scalenetriangle on Kenny’s face. I saw an isosceles triangle in my refrigerator. Vertices TOASTIES The Cereal of Winners! My friend the rhombus is known as the “Dancing Wonder.” I found four vertices on a box of cereal.
To help students pass the state assessment, a teacher did the following and was very successful. All of her students took a mock test in math. Then they scored their own papers. They made this grid:
How can this help? • After the students assess the questions missed, they can go back and count how many questions were in each category • Then have them take a similar test and the goal, of course, is that they would do better! • Also… this would be most useful in working with GED prep questions from the texts. • This is considered “Self-Advocacy” for a student to have more control over what s/he missed on a test.
I used this technique… D – Divide M – Multiply S – Subtract D – Drop R – Repeat
Students Plan Their Own Grades • When you plan, you “keep the end in mind”. • Planning can help to control impulsivity • When students plan their grade and review it weekly, their academics can improve. • For adults: • Have a weekly review of what they have accomplished • A schedule of when they will take the OPT • TABE testing • Ideas?
Making the Grade • 1. What work have I done well in my English class? • a. • b. • c. • d. • 2. What work have I done poorly in my English class? • a. • b. • c. • d. • 3. I was/was not satisfied with my grade in English III last semester. • 1st _____ 2nd _____ 3rd _____ Exam _____ Average _____
Making the Grade • (continued) • 4. What grade do I realistically believe that I can earn this semester in • English III? • 5. What will I do in my English class to earn that grade? • a. • b. • c.
Spring Semester Fourth Grading Period I want to earn ______. Daily 10% Quiz 30% Test 60% Fifth Grading Period I want to earn ______. Daily 10% Quiz 30% Test 60% Sixth Grading Period I want to earn ______. Daily 10% Quiz 30% Test 60% I am/am not satisfied with my grade in English III this semester. 1st _____ 2nd _____ 3rd _____ Exam _____ Average _____
What about Adults? • Look at what the scores are for the OPT • TABE analysis • College 101?? • Your ideas???
Think about how this could be modified to be used in concert with activities you already use?
Five Models for Sorting • Students will get much higher comprehension if they use a technique for sorting. • In nonfiction, there are basically five kinds of text and each of the following icons give a student a quick memory tool. • Descriptive/Topical • Sequence/How-to • Story Structure • Compare and Contrast • Persuasive Reasons
DESCRIPTIVE/TOPICAL • Descriptive or topical is the hand. • Use each finger to sort topics or descriptive details.
Sequence/how-to • For anything sequential use a ladder. • Label sequential steps on a ladder
Story Structure What you sort for and remember in a piece of fiction are the people, the beginning, the middle, the end, the episode, the problem, the goal, the setting. Use the car as a model for sorting and remembering. Middle Characters Beginning End Problem Goal Setting
Compare/Contrast Advantages/Disadvantages Cause/Effect
Persuasive Reasons Persuasive: If you use a hamburger, the top bun is the person's position. Each one of those pieces of meat is a piece of support. The bottom bun is a conclusion.
KNOWLEDGE RATINGS • Using a graph like the one below, have students list the words in the first column to be studied. They evaluate their knowledge level of each word and check the appropriate box. If they have some idea of the meaning, they write in their guess. • Following discussion or study, they write the definition in their own words. This activity is particularly useful in helping students develop metacognitive (being able to think about one’s own thinking) awareness. Example: