Vegetables Identify vegetables and their uses. Explain the value of vegetables in the diet. Explain how to select and store vegetables. Describe and demonstrate methods for preparing, cooking, and serving vegetables. Objectives –
Edible Plants • Enjoyed raw or cooked • Appetizers, side dishes, soups, salads, breads, and main dishes. • Add flavor, color and texture to meals. • Contribute significantly to health
Nutrients in Vegetables • Many are rich in vitamin C • Leafy green vegetables provide folic acid, vitamin K, calcium, and magnesium. • Important source of fiber, complex carbohydrates, and phytochemicals. • No cholesterol • Most are low in calories, fat and sodium • Many of them may lower your risk of some cancers and heart disease, because they contain antioxidants, including vitamin A and C and lycopene.
Types of Vegetables • Vegetables are found in different parts of specific plants. What is edible on one plant might not be on another. • Eat the entire plant – lettuce • The other parts – flowers, fruits, seeds, stems, leaves, roots, tubers…
Sea Vegetables • Seaweeds • Grow in water with filtered sunlight • Many are grown in Japan • Classified as algae, not plants • Low in fat and rich in vitamins and minerals • Higher in sodium than other vegetables • Carrageen (KAR-uh-geen) is a sea vegetable that helps produce the consistency of such products as ice cream, salad dressings, soups, and puddings • Other examples: arame, kombu, laver, wakame, nori, dulse, hijiki, agar
Forms of Vegetables • Fresh • Can be bought locally • Can be grown at home • Canned • Look for low sodium • Frozen • Dried • Overall, the nutrients are the same
Baby Baby • Some are regular veggies picked while immature • Others are full grown plant varieties
Buying fresh vegetables – Look for: • Ripeness – best to use within 2-5 days • Color and texture • Avoid color not normal to the plant, such as green potatoes. This indicates solamine. It can be cut away. • Shape – look for normal • Size – should feel heavy in relation to its size. Extra large may be overripe, tough and have poor flavor. Too small may have poor flavor • Condition – wilted, decayed or damaged veggies have fewer nutrients and won’t last long. Best to buy without the tops. Avoid veggies that are sprouting.
Storing Fresh Vegetables • Except for roots, tubers, and bulbs, veggies should be refrigerated as soon as possible. • Don’t wash yet, as moisture speeds up bacterial action and causes mold to grow. • Potatoes – store in a cool dry place, but don’t refrigerate due to the humidity. The dark helps keep them from turning green. A brown paper bag will work. • Onions – cool dry place in a basket or loosely woven bag, so a can get air circulation. Don’t store with the potatoes, as it will speed up molding of the onion and sprouting of the potato.
Final storage tips • Most veggies should be stored in the refrigerator in plastic bags, airtight containers or the refrigerator crisper section. Use perforated plastic bags to allow moisture to escape. Let tomatoes ripen before refrigerating them.
Washing and Serving Fresh Vegetables • Wash thoroughly even before peeling • Wash tender veggies under cool, running water. • Scrub thick skin veggies with a stiff brush. • Don’t soak – causes nutrient loss • Don’t use detergent – mixes with pesticides and waxes and forms harmful compounds
Don’t peel if possible to retain more nutrients • To keep cut up veggies crisp in frig, • Add a few ice cubes to the covered container they are refrigerated in.
How cooking affects vegetables • Nutrients – vitamins, C and B are easily dissolved in cooking water • Texture – heat softens the cellulose or fiver of the cell walls, making them tender. Overcooking creates mushiness • Flavor – cooking releases flavors, improving the taste. When overcooked, loss of flavor or unpleasant flavor can result. • Color – when properly cooked, vegetables remain colorful. Overcooking green vegetables, changes the chlorophyll into an unattractive olive green
How to Simmer veggies • Add small amount of water to saucepan, cover and bring to boil • Add the veggies, recover and bring to a boil again. Then lower the heat until the water simmers. Cook covered, just until veggies are tender. Drain • Some veggies will simmer in the water that clings to them after washing. • If you plan to peel the veggie (potatoes) do it after you cook them, to save nutrients. • If you have hard water, it can cause red veggies (such as cabbage) to turn purple • Add a little acid (vinegar or lemon juice) to the cooking water • Don’t add salt, it hides the natural flavors • Try to use the cooking liquid
Steaming vegetables • A nutritious method • Place steamer basket in a saucepan with a tight fitting lid. • Add water to a level below the basket • Cover the pan and bring to a boil • Add the veggies and recover.
Pressure – cooking vegetable • Good for beets, whole carrots and potatoes • Preserves nutrients well
Braising Vegetables • Cut into large pieces and place in a heavy pan with a small amount of water or liquid. • Season • Cover tightly and bake in oven at 375 until veggies are tender and browned and the liquid is reduced to a sauce
Frying vegetables • Sautéed, fried, stir fried or deep fried • To speed cooking, add a small amount of water to pan and cover
Baking vegetables • For baked potatoes • Pierce skin • Rub with oil if you want crispy skin • Temperature can be between 300-450 • Done when fork easily pierces
roasting • Drizzle with oil and with seasonings and toss lightly to coat, • Place on baking sheet in a single layer • Roast at 425 until browed, tender and caramelized. Turn over ½ way during cooking
Grilling vegetable • Put long cooking veggies in center of grill. Good to wrap in foil • Small pieces can be on a skewer or in a basket • Brush grill with oil • To shorten cook time, blanch less tender veggies first • Marinate • Brush with oil and herbs • Group by cooking times
Microwaving vegetables • Cook quickly and in little water = high nutrients • Arrange strategically • Tender parts in the center • Cover • Stir • Pierce • Follow directions for power levels, cooking and standing times
Fruits Identify fruits and their uses Explain the value of fruits in the diet Explain how to select and store fruit Describe and demonstrate methods for preparing, cooking, and serving fruits Objectives –
Nutrients in Fruits • Important source of • dietary fiber • Carbohydrates • Vitamin C • Potassium • Phytochemicals, such as beta carotene • Low in calories • Low in sodium • Fat Free • Some fruits have bonuses • Oranges – folic acid • Bananas – magnesium • Raisins and other dried fruits - iron
By definition: • Fruits is the part of a plant that holds the seeds • There are six classifications of fruits • Berries • Melons • Citrus fruits • Drupes • Pomes • Tropical
Melons… • Thick rind or outer skin • Juicy • Usually have many seeds • Examples: • Watermelons • Cantaloupes • Casaba (kuh-SAH-buh)
Berries… • Small • Juicy • Thin skin • Examples – strawberries, cranberries, grapes, blackberries
Citrus Fruits… • Thick rind with a thin membrane separating inner flesh segments • Examples – • Oranges • Tangerines • Grapefruits • Lemons • limes
Drupes… • A single hard seed, pit or stone • Inner flesh is soft and covered by tender, edible skin • Examples – • Cherries • Apricots • Peaches • Nectarines • Plum
Pomes • Thick, firm flesh • Tender, edible skin • The central core contains several small seeds • Examples- • Apples • pears
Tropical Fruits… • Grown in tropical and subtropical climates • Examples • Bananas • Guavas • Papayas • Mangos
Exotic and Full of Adventure • Carambola • “Star Fruit” • Oval shape with four to six prominent ribs and edible skin • When sliced horizontally, it forms star shape • Doesn’t darken when cut • Ripe – yellow gold with slight browning on the ribs • Flavor – a combination of plums, apples, and citrus
Exotic and Full of Adventure • Cherimoya • “Custard Apple” • To eat, spoon the custard texture from chilled fruit • Heart shaped • Green skin with imprinted petal shapes • Tastes like a blend of strawberries, pineapples and bananas
Exotic and Full of Adventure • Feijoa (fay-YOH-uh) • Small, egg shaped • Thin, bright green skin • Fragrant, cream colored flesh • Flavor – pineapples and mint • Peel before eating
Exotic and Full of Adventure • Lychee (LEE-chee) • Also spelled litchi • Small with rough red shell and a single seed • Flesh is creamy white, juicy and sweet. • To eat, remove the shell and seed. • Lychee nuts are the dried fruit
Exotic and Full of Adventure • Prickly Pear • Produced by cactus plants • Sometimes called cactus pears • Come in a variety of colors • Peel, section, remove seeds, and serve cold
Exotic and Full of Adventure… • Sapote (sah-POH-tay) • Medium, pear shaped, • Thin, olive-green skin • Creamy, custard like flesh • Tastes like combination of peach and vanilla • Peel and remove seeds
Exotic and Full of Adventure • Tamarillo • (ta-muh-RIH-loh) • Small, egg-shaped • Tough, bitter, varicolored skin • Flavorful, tart, pink flesh • Peel, remove seeds, and add sugar before eating
Exotic and Full of Adventure… • Ugli fruit • About the size of grapefruit • Rough, thick, yellow-green skin • Juicy, yellow – orange flesh • Divided into sections • Eaten like grapefruit
Selecting Fresh Fruits • Some are available all year round and others are • Seasonal • Mature fruits have reached full size and color • Ripe fruits are at their peak of flavor and are ready to eat. They are tender and have a pleasant aroma. • Most fruits are picked when under ripe to prevent them from spoilage during shipping. • Grapes, berries, cherries, citrus fruits, pineapples, and melons won’t ripen after harvest and must be picked when fully ripe. • If a fruit is picked before it is mature, it never ripens
Selecting Fresh Fruits • To test fruits for ripeness, press very gently. Ripe fruits gives slightly under pressure. Don’t press too hard. • Natural blemishes don’t affect quality. • Some oranges experience regreening. In warm weather, chlorophyll, returns to the skins of ripe oranges. Bright lights in the produce department can also cause regreening.
Selecting Fresh Fruits • Immature, overripe and damaged fruits • Lost nutrients • Poor flavor and texture • Quick to rot • Look for • Condition • No bruising or damaged spots • Denseness • Avoid dry, withered, very soft or very hard • Color • Aroma • Size • Heavier = juicier • Shape
Storing Fresh Fruits • Never wash fruits before storing them • Encouraging bacteria growth and mold • Under ripe fruits – to speed ripening, put in brown paper bag. Adding an apple (produces harmless ethylene, a fruit ripening gas.) If you store fruit in a plastic bag, make holes to allow moisture to evaporate
Storing Bananas • Store uncovered at room temperature. They can be refrigerated after ripening. The skin turns dark, but the bananas keep their quality
Storing berries, cherries and grapes • Sort to remove bad ones. • Refrigerate in a perforated, plastic bag or container, in a covered, shallow container, or uncovered in the crisper drawer of the refrigerator.