animal related environmental issues that may be controlled by animal management n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
ANIMAL-RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES THAT MAY BE CONTROLLED BY ANIMAL MANAGEMENT PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
ANIMAL-RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES THAT MAY BE CONTROLLED BY ANIMAL MANAGEMENT

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 21

ANIMAL-RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES THAT MAY BE CONTROLLED BY ANIMAL MANAGEMENT - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 132 Views
  • Uploaded on

ANIMAL-RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES THAT MAY BE CONTROLLED BY ANIMAL MANAGEMENT. Nitrogen Phosphorus Odors Greenhouse gases Sediment Species diversity. TOOLS TO MANAGE ANIMAL-RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES. Nutritional management Managed grazing.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'ANIMAL-RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES THAT MAY BE CONTROLLED BY ANIMAL MANAGEMENT' - calista-riley


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
animal related environmental issues that may be controlled by animal management
ANIMAL-RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES THAT MAY BE CONTROLLED BY ANIMAL MANAGEMENT
  • Nitrogen
  • Phosphorus
  • Odors
  • Greenhouse gases
  • Sediment
  • Species diversity
tools to manage animal related environmental issues
TOOLS TO MANAGE ANIMAL-RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
  • Nutritional management
  • Managed grazing
controlling nitrogen excretion by optimizing protein metabolism monogastrics
CONTROLLING NITROGEN EXCRETION BY OPTIMIZING PROTEIN METABOLISMMonogastrics
  • Increase protein digestibility
  • Lower crude protein intake
  • Dietary balance
    • Protein:energy ratio
    • Balance of essential amino acids
      • Phenyalanine
      • Valine
      • Tryptophan
      • Threonine
      • Isoleucine
      • Methionine
      • Histidine
      • Arginine
      • Leucine
      • Lysine
controlling nitrogen excretion by optimizing protein metabolism ruminants
CONTROLLING NITROGEN EXCRETION BY OPTIMIZING PROTEIN METABOLISMRuminants
  • Increase protein digestibility
  • Decrease N intake
  • Decrease protein degradability
  • Diet balance
    • Carbohydrate energy
    • Sulfur
    • Phosphorus

A

B

S

O

R

B

E

D

Protein

Escape

Metabolizable

Protein

NPN

Protein

Degraded

Microbial

protein

NH3

Excreted

Converted

to urea in

liver

controlling phosphorus excretion by optimizing nutrition
CONTROLLING PHOSPHORUS EXCRETION BY OPTIMIZING NUTRITION
  • Lower P intake
    • Phase feeding
  • Feed phytase to monogastrics
    • 50% of the phosphorus in most feeds is bound to phytic acid
  • Feed low phytate corn and soybeans to monogastrics
  • Dietary balance
    • Ca:P ratio
    • Vitamin D metabolites
greenhouse gases
GREENHOUSE GASES
  • Carbon dioxide
  • Methane (CH4)
    • 21 x the greenhouse effects of CO2
  • Nitrous oxide
    • 310 x the greenhouse effects of CO2
controlling methane production by ruminants through diet management
CONTROLLING METHANE PRODUCTION BY RUMINANTS THROUGH DIET MANAGEMENT
  • Increase the proportion of grain and decrease the proportion of forage in the diet
    • Must have a minimum of 50% forage in dairy diets and 10% in feedlot diets
  • Grind forage
  • Feed ionophores
    • Monensin
    • Lasalocid
    • Salinomycin
  • Feed unsaturated fatty acids
    • Maximum 5% of diet dry matter
effects of grazing on environmental quality
Well-managed grazing

Optimize forage productivity and nutritional quality

Maximize forage species diversity

Improve efficiency of forage utilization

Maintains forage cover on streambanks

Minimize soil erosion

Minimize P loading of streams

Minimize soil compaction and trailing

Maximize manure nutrient distribution

Poorly managed grazing

Reduced forage productivity and quality

Minimize forage species diversity

Weed infestation

Loss of streambank cover

Stream widening and loss of aquatic habitat

Increased soil erosion

Increased P loading of streams

Increased soil compaction

Increased cow paths

Poor manure distribution

EFFECTS OF GRAZING ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY
key to sustainability of grazing lands
KEY TO SUSTAINABILITY OF GRAZING LANDS
  • Managing vegetative cover through
    • Feed for grazing livestock
    • Hold soil into place
    • Filter water
    • Recycle nutrients
slide14

EFFECTS OF FORAGE CANOPY HEIGHT ON GROUND COVER, INFILTRATION RATE, AND EROSION RATE AFTER TREADING AT THREE RATES ON A NEW ZEALAND HILL COUNTRY PASTURE

components of good grazing management
COMPONENTS OF GOOD GRAZING MANAGEMENT
  • Appropriate stocking rate
    • Neither too low or high
    • Flexible management to maintain forage quality
      • Adjust stocking rate
      • Hay harvest
  • Appropriate rest periods
    • Based on forage growth rate
      • 15 days early summer
      • 35 days in mid-summer
  • Appropriate design
    • Number of paddocks
      • 8 – 12 for rest
      • 24 – 36 for grazing efficiency
    • Square paddocks
    • Water in each paddock
calculating the length of occupancy for paddocks
Estimate forage yield

Estimate total forage in 5 ac paddock

Estimate available forage in paddock

Estimate forage intake by fifty 1250 lb cow-calf pairs

Calculate days/paddock

Calculate total paddocks

Calculate total acres

15 cm x 110 lb/ac/cm = 1650 lb/ac

1650 lb/ac x 10 ac = 16,500 lb

16,500 lb x 50% = 8250 lb

50 x 1250 x 3.5% BW = 2188 lb/day

8250 lb/pad / 2188 lb/day = 3.8 days

35 days rest/3.8 days + 1 = 10.2 paddocks

10.2 paddocks x 10 ac/pad = 100 ac

CALCULATING THE LENGTH OF OCCUPANCY FOR PADDOCKS
slide19

MEASUREMENT OF SEDIMENT AND PHOSPHORUS LOSSESRainfall simulations

  • Frequency
    • June, August, October, and April
  • Locations
    • 3 in 2 slope classes within each paddock
    • 3 in each buffer strip at paddock base
    • 3 in each buffer strip 30 ft from paddock base
  • Rainfall rate
    • 2.8 inches/hour
  • Duration
    • 1.5 hours