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Agreement Major Mistake • No one should have to live their life while being worried about what clique they will be associated with. • Correction: No one should have to live his life while being worried about what clique he might be associated.
Agreement Rules • If the subject is singular, then the verb must be singular. • Same goes if it’s plural! • If the antecedent is singular, then the pronoun must be singular! (same goes with the plural) • If the subject is an indefinite pronoun, you must figure whether it’s singular or plural!
Phrases between subjects and verbs • The girl’s movements, the jaunty jig, were/was entertaining to watch. • A studious learner, one of many students, is/are a student I enjoy.
Students’ Authentic Samples • It takes a real man or woman to put their lives on the line. • Correction: It takes a real man or woman to put his or her life on the line. • It takes real men and women to put their lives on the line. • Oddity: It takes a real man or women to put their lives on the line.
Pronoun/Antecedent Agreement page 94 • Anyone thinking that video games are only for children should revise his or her belief. • Jim and Bob will present (their, his) project today in class. • Arctic explorers discover that (you, they) cannot expose skin to the icy air. • I told everyone on the girls’ team that (she, you, they) should bring (her, your, their) own lunch.
Indefinite Pronouns as Antecedents • Singular: everyone, anyone, someone, neither, either, each, everything, everybody, anything, anybody, something, somebody, nobody, nothing (think about it: they end in one, thing, body, which are all singular) • Plural: both, few, several, many • Both: all, any, most, none, some
Carmel Teacher Errors—Mwaaa, haaa, haaaa Below are a few reminders for Friday… 1. Please send your child’s word cards (blue snappy sight words) back Friday to be checked. If mastered new cards will be added. Thank you for your continued support at home! 2. On Friday, January 20th. Your Kindergartener is invited to wear their slippers to celebrate both the 100th day of school and their 1st report card coming home. 3. In addition to slippers, your Kindergartener is also invited to dress up as if they were 100 years old on Friday. This is not required, but a fun addition. A few of our Kindergarten teachers will be participating. Feel free to participate if you are interested.
Commas/ Pronoun Agreement • Everyoneof course does not occupy their time with these endeavors but I appreciate the joy they give me. • Everyone, of course, does not occupy his/her time with these endeavors, but I appreciate the joy they give me.
What’s wrong here? • If the child knows of his/her adoption, then they will think that their birth mother….
Compound Subjects • Normally, a compound subject takes a plural verb; for example, Kathy and I were riding bikes yesterday. • There are certain exceptions to the norm, of course. • Exception 1: When using a compound subject as ONE unit, you use the singular verb; for example, Mac and cheese (is, are) my favorite lunch. Rock and Roll
Or and Nor • When subjects are joined by or OR nor, take the subject closest to the verb. • For example: • Mariah nor the players on her team (has, have) dunked a basketball.
Does/do my shirt and my hair look nice? • My shirt and my hair do look nice.
More exceptions • When using the words EACH, EVERY, and MANY before the compound subject, you use the singular verb. • For example: Each boy and girl (is, are) allowed a cookie. • Every man and woman in the play(was, were) proud of (their, his/her) performance.
Introductory Prep. Phrase Rule: To Use a Comma or NOT! • Do not use a comma if you only have one introductory prepositional phrase. • Use a comma if you have two or more OR if it’s long and you are avoiding confusion. • After a long introductory prepositional phrase or more than one introductory prepositional phrase. (Are there more than five words before the main clause?)
Then vs. Than • http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/conjunctions.htm
Collective nouns: Words like team, jury, band, choir, herd, committee are collective nouns and can function as either singular or plural. 16. The cast (is, are) changing their minds about the performance. *As individual members 17. The cast (has, have) performed the play three times. *As ONE unit 18. The Super Bowl news (was, were) on the front of The Indianapolis Star. Bonus: Everyone sees that a few of our group (is, are) missing.
Scissors, pants, pliers, binoculars, and khakis take on a plural verb even though they function as individual units!!!
Numbers, words that end in “s,” • Three hours (is, are) a long time to wait. • The news (has, have) brought sad information. • Pants and scissors are exceptions to the rule! They take the plural verb! • My pants (are, is) too tight!
Examples: • Over the last few years at WHS, I have really enjoyed the unique students in class. • Over the hill there was a broken sled.
Fractions and Numbers • Numerical amounts, works of arts, literature or music are considered singular. • Fractional numbers are considered plural most of the time, but if they refer to a singular nouns, then they will be singular. • Two-thirds of a gallon (Is, are) plenty for the family. • Two-thirds of voters (cast, casts) their votes honestly.
Subjunctive Tense/Mood • Use the subjunctive tense when the situation is either a wish or contrary to fact. This tense will not always match up with subject/verb agreement. • Example: He (was, were) scrawny. • He wishes he weren’t scrawny • He wishes he were stacked with lean muscle. • Was vs. Were
Other Miscellaneous Subj./Verb Agreement Rules • Inverted sentences: The subject always has to match up with the verb even if it comes after it or is a question. • Example: In the next room (is, are) students studying for the test. • (Do, does) any stores in this mall sell Angry Birds?
Predicate Nominatives: Long phone cords (are, is) a problem of previous decades. • A problem for students of the 1980s (was, were) big hair. • Here or there: Here (lies, lie) the dead bodies. • Here (lies, lie) the dead body)
Indefinite Pronouns • Sentence Agreement: Indefinite Pronouns — Infoplease.comhttp://www.infoplease.com/cig/grammar-style/indefinite-pronouns.html#ixzz1k1rWULTY
Who vs. Whom • Who is the subject case or subject of a clause • We gave the job to whoever was the best candidate • Whom is the objective case ALWAYS; also many times it comes after a preposition • The athlete whom no one could recognize was Julius Irving (Dr. J).
Who/whom is in charge today? • To whom/who should we give the award? • Everyone knew who/whom our new teacher was. • The commercial offered money to whoever/whomever called in first.
Whom/who: • As with most areas of our life, whom we will work with and who will be our friends makes all the difference. I wanted to be in a place where I could improve my skills and win championships.
Who is who/whom in college basketball? • Who/Whom is he? • Whom will you love?
Elliptical Clauses… • My son loves football more than I. • My son loves football more than I do… • My son loves football more than me. (more than he loves me) The doctor questioned my brother more than me/I. My sister has bigger feet than I/me.
Tricky Situations w/ Pronouns • This is she. **Think predicate nominative would be replaced by Holly, which is referring to the subject case pronoun “this.” • I am better than he. • She is stronger than I. • She likes Ms. Gipe better than me.
Extra Quiz Questions • After a long day at school we/us students chose to run 12 miles home. • Because I do laundry every day, my children need to be grateful to me/I. • My kids, both Leanne and she/her, need to wash their dishes.