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PIA 2020

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  1. PIA 2020 Week Seven: Organizations, Socialization and Motivation

  2. Question of the Week • Public Organizations • Can Bureaucracy be Reformed?

  3. Robert N. Kharasch David Osborne PERSONS OF THE WEEK

  4. Authors of the Week • Ted Gabler • John A. Armstrong

  5. Overview • A Cultural Approach • Political Culture • Organizational Culture • Values and Motivation • Socialization

  6. I. The Cultural Approach • An Ideal?

  7. Thesis • Political, Administrative Culture and Socialization have a major impact on organizational behavior. • Question to Return to: Can we Reform or Reinvent Government given Premises about Socialization. (Osborne and Gabler)

  8. The Multi- Cultural Issue: Two Assumptions 1. Many cultures: regional, administrative, ethnic, professional, etc. including hierarchy of values 2. These are effected by historical origin, race, gender, education, region, etc.

  9. Austro-Hungarian Empire: What is the Culture Today?

  10. Europe 2006 to 2012? Crisis: Does Europe deal with it differently?

  11. 2012 Nobel Peace Prize: What does it Mean? (Mini-Discussion) • The EU as an Organization

  12. The Key Three dimensions of Culture

  13. Three components of Culture a. Information and Measurable Understanding b. Beliefs and Values c. Emotions

  14. The Cognitive Dimension- What people know. a. The set of historical and cultural information to which any native of the society is automatically tuned in b. All societies have their peculiarities which are part of their political culture

  15. Empirical Information acquired by means of observation or experimentation

  16. The Evaluative Dimension- Not the is but the what ought to be a. Normative- What is good and bad b. U.S.- Military service good, welfare cheaters bad

  17. Evaluation

  18. The Emotive Dimension- The emotional attachment that people have to their political system a. Symbolism and myth, anthems and flags b. Provides the strength of values c. Nationalism- “My country right or wrong”

  19. Emotive

  20. Components of Culture

  21. II. Political Culture

  22. The Concept of Political Culture a. People are tied to a unique web of historical experiences b. Assumption: From the general culture one can extract out the salient aspects of that culture that relate to political behavior and organizational and administrative traditions

  23. Swedish Political Culture

  24. What does this represent?

  25. The Way Things Are Learned • May be cognitive, evaluative or emotional • Vague Patriotic image- eg. U.S. paternal- President as "super-friend" and father image (shattered by Watergate and post-Watergate- See Bob Woodward’s Books About Bush (and Tina Fey’s Sarah Palin) • Societal and community definitions • Personal identification with government

  26. SNL “Bob Woodward Arrested for Treason” (Fake) Values and Learning

  27. THESIS • Political Culture can predict political behavior • Culture limits the action of citizens and administrators, channels demands and excludes certain possible policy options • Changing the Organizational Culture Reforms the Organization

  28. China Image: Does Political Culture Make a Difference?

  29. Emperor and Empress of India: Why are British Colonies Different?

  30. Pakistan: Muslim League Leaders – Issue of Secularism?

  31. Danish Peasant Culture: The Happy Scandinavians?

  32. Copenhagen, Denmark

  33. II. Organizational Culture as a Sub-Political Culture?

  34. Organizational Culture: The Ideal Type

  35. Groups 1, 2 and 4 constitute the traditional political culture, also found in the labour movement, Groups 3 and 6 constitute a user-oriented political culture based on functional participation in single issues; whereas group 7 contains the very active political elite. Danish Political Culture: Re. Housing Organizational Sub-Cultures

  36. Organizations and Administrative Culture: Overview • Socialization and Bureaucratic Behavior • The Concept of political and Administrative Culture • A mixture of elite and mass culture

  37. The Concept Continued • Organizational Culture is a sub-set of broader cultural assumptions • In looking for evidence of a political or an administrative culture we are looking for a set of representative values for the people of that society

  38. IV. Values and Motivation • Money vs. Human Relations

  39. Motivation: Redeux 1. Theory X vs. Theory Y= Theory Z (Douglas McGregor) 2. Maslov’s Hierarchy: Basic needs, social needs and ego needs 3. Application of Theories of Motivation outside the U.S. Case Study (China, Korea, South Africa and Brazil) 4. The Special problem of Fragile and Collapsed states. 5. The Importance of a Motivation Theory in a Country Such as Guinea

  40. The Hierarchy of Needs Redux

  41. The Impact of Organizations

  42. V. Socialization

  43. Socialization 1. Process by which political attitudes are formed and maintained 2. Acquisition of values, beliefs, and knowledge about the political system on both the individual and community level 3. Cultural transmission across generations- the introduction of new generations to the beliefs and values of the old

  44. Socialization: Impact on Values and Culture

  45. Levels of Socialization a. Primary- Most important: occurs within the family b. Secondary- Everything else before adulthood, school, peers, national and regional- it is here that cultural engineering occurs c. Tertiary- Professional and Organizational- Begins with University. Issue how specialization of bureaucratic elites is related to socialization and education