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Introduction to Polymers. Overview. What are polymers ? How are polymers named? What is a polymer crosslinker ?. Polymers are all around us!. Natural. Synthetic (man-made). Plastic containers. DNA. Toys. Wood. Rubber. Contact lenses. Carbohydrates (sugars). Protein

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Presentation Transcript
overview
Overview
  • What are polymers?
  • How are polymers named?
  • What is a polymer crosslinker?
polymers are all around us
Polymers are all around us!

Natural

Synthetic

(man-made)

Plastic

containers

DNA

Toys

Wood

Rubber

Contact lenses

Carbohydrates

(sugars)

Protein

(amino acids)

Clothing

polyester

Sport equipment

polymer definition
Polymer Definition

polymer

“many”

“part”

Polymers are large molecules made of repeating parts

The repeating parts are chemical compounds

polymers are made of chains of repeating compounds
Polymers are made of chains of repeating compounds

Polyester coat

Polyester fibers

small

(micro)

Large

(macro)

polymers are made of chains of repeating compounds1
Polymers are made of chains of repeating compounds

Polyester coat

Polyester fibers

small

(micro)

ester

ester

ester

ester

Strings of ‘ester’compounds

Joined by

covalent bonds

Large

(macro)

polymers are made of chains of repeating compounds2
Polymers are made of chains of repeating compounds

Polyester coat

Polyester fibers

small

(micro)

ester

ester

ester

ester

Esters are compounds

made of elementslike C, H, O

Covalent bonds form when these atoms share electrons

Large

(macro)

naming polymers
Naming polymers

mer

mer

mer

mer

mer

Polymer

Polyester

ester

ester

ester

ester

PolyA

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

Name this polymer:

sugar

sugar

sugar

sugar

naming polymers1
Naming polymers

mer

mer

mer

mer

mer

Polymer

Polyester

ester

ester

ester

ester

PolyA

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

Name this polymer:

Polysugar

sugar

sugar

sugar

sugar

(a carbohydrate!)

crosslinkers stabilize polymer chains
Crosslinkers stabilize polymer chains

Polyester fibers

Polymer molecule chains

ester

ester

ester

ester

Beads on a string

One fiber

A crosslinker is a

compound that bonds polymer chains together

crosslinkers stabilize polymer chains1
Crosslinkers stabilize polymer chains

Polyester fibers

Polymer molecule chains

ester

ester

ester

ester

Beads on a string

One fiber

A crosslinker is a

compound that bonds polymer chains together

what are some properties of polymers
What are some properties of polymers?

vs.

How can we change the properties of polymers?

slide13
The chemical properties of repeat units and their crosslinkers determine the physical properties of polymers
  • Density
  • Melting temperature
  • Transparency
  • Stiffness
  • Can’t see through
  • Flexible
  • Can’t see through
  • Rigid, stiff
  • See-through
  • Flexible
slide14

Example

Remember the TP lab?

How does TP absorb water?

Toilet paper contains a polymer called cellulose

cellulose

cellulose

cellulose

+ Water

Remember, paper comes from wood, a natural polymer!

slide15

Example

Remember the TP lab?

How does TP absorb water?

Toilet paper contains a polymer called cellulose

cellulose

cellulose

cellulose

+ Water

cellulose

cellulose

cellulose

Water loves cellulose!

This makes TP absorbant!

slide16

Example

Remember the TP lab?

How does TP absorb water?

So, the chemical properties of a polymer (cellulose) in paper help determine its physical properties (absorbancy)

slide17

Example

An important synthetic polymer

Polyethylene (PE)

ethylene

ethylene

ethylene

slide18

Example

An important synthetic polymer

Polyethylene (PE)

ethylene

ethylene

ethylene

This is what the compound called

ethylene looks like:

H

H

C

C

H

H

This repeating compound is called ethylene

-Its chemical formula is C2H4

slide19

Example

An important synthetic polymer

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

C

C

Polyethylene (PE)

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

ethylene

ethylene

ethylene

This is what the compound called

ethylene looks like:

This repeating compound is called ethylene

-Its chemical formula is C2H4

slide20

Example

An important

natural polymer

Deoxyribonucleic acid

(DNA)

Wow, that is complex!

slide21

Example

An important

natural polymer

Deoxyribonucleic acid

(DNA)

Wow, that is complex!

Cartoon of

DNA

DNA double helix

slide22

Polymers are used in medical devices

pelvis

Thigh bone

hip

cartilage

knee

Thigh bone

Shin bone

polymer

slide24

Homemade silly putty

H

H

C

C

Repeat unit = vinyl alcohol

H

OH

OH

HO

B

OH

Crosslinker = borate ions

OH

slide25

Homemade silly putty

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

O

O

H

O

O

H

H

B

B

H

O

O

H

H

O

O

H

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H