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CLASSIFICATION LAB 08. Purpose:. Review classification of organisms. Construct and map the relationships of members from the Kingdom Animalia. Systematics - studies diversity of life. Taxonomy - study of classification. I. Systematics. Classification: Six kingdom system. :. Eubacteria.

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

Purpose:

  • Review classification of organisms.
  • Construct and map the relationships of members from the Kingdom Animalia.
slide3

Systematics- studies diversity of life

Taxonomy- study of classification

I. Systematics

slide4

Classification: Six kingdom system

:

Eubacteria

Archaebacteria

E. coli

Cyanobacteria

Protista

Paramecium

Diatom

Slime mold

Plantae

Fungi

Animalia

phylogentic relationships of animals
Phylogentic Relationships of Animals

Platyhelminthes

Porifera

Mollusca

Chordata

Arthropoda

Annelida

Cnideria

Nematoda

Echinodermata

pseudocoelom

segmentation

acoelom

Protostome: schizocoelem

Deuterostomes:

eucoelom

radial symmetry

bilateral symmetry

no true tissues

true tissue

Ancestral Protist

slide6

Mode of Reproduction: binary fission, gametes

Cell structure: multi or single celled, nucleus/no nucleus, cell wall/no cell wall, chlorophyll present/not present,

Internal/External skeleton: back bone, bone/cartilage

Energy: autotrophic, heterotrophic, chemotrophic

Respiratory system: gills, lungs, gas exchange across skin/epithelium

Embryonic development: deuterostome, protostome

Circulatory system: closed/open, # of chambers in a heart

What are some of the ways we can classify animals?

slide8

Class Mammalia

Metatherians

Eutherians

Prototherians

True placental

Live births

Have fur/hair, warm blooded, suckle young

slide10

Rhipidistians

Placodermi

Chondrichthyes

(sharks & rays)

Osteichthyes

Amphibians

Reptiles

Mammalia

Birds

Lungfish

Coelacanth

Ray-finned fishes

Tetrapods

Lobed-finned fishes

Fleshy-finned fishes

Ancestral jawed fishes of the Devonian period

slide11

Two main objectives of taxonomy:

1. Sort out closely related organisms, assign

them to a species, and describe diagnostic

characteristics that distinguish the species

from one another.

2. Classification of species- arrange species

in broader taxonomic categories.

slide14

School of Systematics

Classical Evolutionary Systematics

  • Classification based on observed similarities and differences
  • Darwinian approach
  • Phylogram
slide15

Features

Pear orange grapefruit apple plum greengage

hard + + + + - -

stone - - - - + +

round - + + + - +

thin skin + - - + + +

smooth + - - + + +

sweet + + - + + +

stalk + - - + + +

segments - + + - - -

Similarities

pear

orange 3

grapefruit 2 7

apple 7 4 3

plum 6 1 0 4

greengage 5 2 1 6 7

pear orange grapefruit apple plum

slide17

mouse

chimp

hawk

lizard

salamander

trout

hagfish

feathers

Fur; mammary glands

Claws or nails

lungs

jaws

Classification based on branching pattern in a phylogenetically related group of organisms

Cladogram

slide19

Divide into 4 research teams.

Make a classification scheme. Include all of the categories from phylum to species.

Take a bag containing fasteners.

Develop a classification system.

Exercise1: The Nuts and Bolts of Classification

Complete assignment and answer all questions

slide20

Exercise 2: Animal Classification

  • Divide into teams of 2 or 3.
  • Select 5 animals
  • Sort animal specimens based traits.
  • Make a classification scheme. Include all of the categories from phylum to species.
slide21

Construct a phylogenetic tree based only on examination of your specimens.

The Comparative Approach to Phylogenetic Analysis

2 species evolving from x

(dichotomous split)

Use with 3 or more species