CLASSIFICATION LAB 08. Purpose:. Review classification of organisms. Construct and map the relationships of members from the Kingdom Animalia. Systematics - studies diversity of life. Taxonomy - study of classification. I. Systematics. Classification: Six kingdom system. :. Eubacteria.
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Taxonomy- study of classification
no true tissues
Cell structure: multi or single celled, nucleus/no nucleus, cell wall/no cell wall, chlorophyll present/not present,
Internal/External skeleton: back bone, bone/cartilage
Energy: autotrophic, heterotrophic, chemotrophic
Respiratory system: gills, lungs, gas exchange across skin/epithelium
Embryonic development: deuterostome, protostome
Circulatory system: closed/open, # of chambers in a heart
What are some of the ways we can classify animals?
Have fur/hair, warm blooded, suckle young
(sharks & rays)
Ancestral jawed fishes of the Devonian period
1. Sort out closely related organisms, assign
them to a species, and describe diagnostic
characteristics that distinguish the species
from one another.
2. Classification of species- arrange species
in broader taxonomic categories.
Classical Evolutionary Systematics
Pear orange grapefruit apple plum greengage
hard + + + + - -
stone - - - - + +
round - + + + - +
thin skin + - - + + +
smooth + - - + + +
sweet + + - + + +
stalk + - - + + +
segments - + + - - -
grapefruit 2 7
apple 7 4 3
plum 6 1 0 4
greengage 5 2 1 6 7
pear orange grapefruit apple plum
Fur; mammary glands
Claws or nails
Classification based on branching pattern in a phylogenetically related group of organisms
Make a classification scheme. Include all of the categories from phylum to species.
Take a bag containing fasteners.
Develop a classification system.
Exercise1: The Nuts and Bolts of Classification
Complete assignment and answer all questions
Construct a phylogenetic tree based only on examination of your specimens.
The Comparative Approach to Phylogenetic Analysis
2 species evolving from x
Use with 3 or more species