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Best practice tools to promote sustainable energy technologies on regional levelExample of a region: BavariaAER Seminar ‘Sustainable Energy Policy: Promoting Renewable Energy and Rational Energy Management in European Regions’, Porjus, Norrbotten (SWE), 1-2 July 2005 Klaus GrepmeierZREU GmbH - Member of the OPET Network


Bavaria - a region in the heart of Europe

  • Largest of the Federal Länder in Germany
  • 12 Mio. inhabitats
  • Area: 70,000 km2
  • Gross domestic product: 357,000 MEuro

The Organisations for the Promotion of Energy Technologies - OPET Network

  • an initiative of the European Commission, Directorate-General Energy and Transport, that
  • aims to promote public awareness of current energy research through a new and challenging series of activities

The OPET network – consortia and activitiesThe Directorate-General Energy and Transport of the European Commission restructured the OPET Network around a series of thematic consortia in order to provide an integrated and comprehensive view of on-going research and to promote the deployment of innovative technologies esp. on local and regional level in each of the following areas:

  • Buildings
  • Renewable energy sources
  • Combined heat and power
  • Clean fossil fuels
  • Energy issues in transport
  • New energy technologies in the Mediterranean region (MEDNET)
  • Modern and clean energy and transport technologies in Latin America and the Caribbean (OLA)
  • Early market introduction of new energy technologies (EMINENT)

Promotion of modern biomass technologies for heat supply of buildings -Best practice tools

  • Political and legislative
  • Financial
  • Technological development
  • Networking, exchange of experiences
  • Information dissemination, education, training

Bavaria - a biomass region

  • Wooded areas: 2.5 Mio. hectares (36% of total area)
  • Use of wood for heating purposes is common in the region (almost 1/3 of Bavarian homesuse wood as an energy source)
  • 2.3 Mio. tons/a of wood used for energetic purposes
  • 265 biomass heating and combined heat and power plants in operation
  • 1.8 Mio. small combustion plants using wood fuel and other types of biomass


(without biomass)



(wind, solar,...)








Natural gas




Hard coal

Hydro power



Brown coal

Mineral oil



RES / biomass proportion on primary energy consumption in Bavaria


Biomass utilisation in Bavaria (total: 67 PJ)

Biomass from waste


Wood fuel in small



Biomass for heat


(and power) plants



Sewage gas




Sewage sludge


Biofuels, vegetable oil





Strong political commitment

  • Integrated concept to promote the energetic use of biomass
  • Aim: biomass to cover 5% on primary energy consumption in Bavaria
  • Preserving existing small combustion plants and promoting the application of new ones
  • Extending the existing network of biomass heating plants - funding of pilot applications
  • Providing financial incentives for alternative heat supply technologies

Bavarian support programmes

  • “BioKomm“

valid for: central heating systmes with automatic fuel supply (< 500 kW)

financial support: 61.5 €/kW (minimum: 2,050 €/system)

recipients: municipalities and church organisations

  • “BioHeiz 500”

valid for: small scale biomass heating plants with automatic fuel supply (100 - 500 kW)

financial support: 30 €/kW + 30 €/m installed heating network (doubling of funding rates in case of keeping certain emission limits)

recipients: private persons, municipalities, organisations, farmers, SMEs

Both programmes have allocated all available funds


Support schemes in place

  • Federal RE market stimulation programme

valid for: (central) biomass heating systmes with automatic fuel supply (< 100 kW)

financial support: 60 €/kW (minimum: 1,700 €/system)

recipients:private persons, SMEs

  • Bavarian programme to support invest. in biomass heating plants

valid for: heating plants based on solid biomass (annual heat demand: min. 500 MWh)

requirements:applied quality management; min. of 2,500 operational hours per year

financial support: 40 €/MWh annual heat demand + 25 €/m installed heating network

recipients: private persons, municipalities, organisations, farmers, SMEs

  • Low interest loans from public banks

valid for: biomass applications in new or existing buildings


Support schemes in place

Federal RE market stimulation programme

Number of supported biomass systems in Germany (2000-2004)

Source: BAFA, 2004


Technological development

  • Since 1970‘s considerable R&D efforts on biomass harvesting, fuel processing and combustion equipment
  • Financial support for the development and testing of new biomass technologies - proportion of expenditure on R&D as part of the GDP is 3%
  • Recent R&D efforts concentrated on automatic wood pellet systems, smale scale biomass gasification, CHP biomass utilisation schemes
  • Innovative entrepreneurial structures; strong indigenous industry capabilities in biomass
  • State investment subsidies require good performance levels of biomass installations (efficiency > 90%)

Wood pellet heating systems

  • System technology
    • automatic fuel supply (feeding screw or suction device)
    • automatic ignition
    • electronic combustion control systems for adjusting the fuel and air supply
    • heat exchanger cleaning device
    • automatic ash removal
    • backfire safety device
  • Typical costs for wood pellet heating systems
  • << 15 kW: stove: 8,000 € storage, buffer: n.a.
  • << 20 kW: boiler: 9,000 € storage, buffer: 4,500 €
  • 20 – 50 kW: boiler:13,000 € storage, buffer: 4,700 €
  • 50 – 100 kW: boiler:15,000 € - 50,000 € storage, buffer: 6,000 € – 15,000 €
  • 100 – 300 kW: boiler:20,000 € - 100,000 € storage, buffer:15,000 € – 30,000 €

Heating with wood pellets - a dynamic increasing market

  • Installed pellet systems (accumulated, DE)
  • Production capacity of wood pellets (DE)

Source: Dr.-Ing. Joachim Fischer, 2004, Pellets in Deutschland ein dynamischer Wachstumsmarkt


Distribution of pellet systems by federal states

Source: Dr.-Ing. Joachim Fischer, 2004, Pellets in Deutschland ein dynamischer Wachstumsmarkt


Areas of preference for application of wood pellet heating systems

  • Rural areas
    • low density type of settlement
    • heat supply through a district heating or gas network requires heat densities of at least 25 MW/km2
    • high share of owner occupied houses
  • Urban peripheral regions
    • not connected to a gas or district heating net
    • reduce the dependency on fuel oil
  • Regions around biomass district heating networks
    • not connected to a gas or district heating net
    • supply with wood pellets by the operator of the heating plant

Research & DevelopmentApplied science and technologiesInformation dissemination and networking

Support schemes

Network Mediator and Gateway

Zentrum für rationelle Energieanwendung und Umwelt GmbH

 Planung und

Animation der


 Organisation des

Steering Komittees

 Zentrale Kontakt-

stelle bei Anfragen

Technical University Munich, Bavarian State Ministry Coordinating office ZREU

Technical College Weihenstephan for Agriculture and Forestry for renewable raw materials (Member of C.A.R.M.E.N.)

Bavarian regional pellet network

Source: C.A.R.M.E.N. e..V., 2005


Heat cost billing(optional)

Heat accounting:- Basic load/fee- Price per kWh

Operation, maintenanceand emergency service

Wood fuelsupply

Financing of the investment,assumption of risks,full guarantee

Installation/revitalisation of the heating system

Public-Private-Partnership modellHeat supply by PPP


Wood pellets price[green] compared to fuel oil [red] and natural gas [yellow]

Source: C.A.R.M.E.N. e..V., 2005


Benefits through PPP-energy schemes


Developers and housing associations

  • improvements withoutsacrifice - investment in new heat supply systems without using own capital funds, esp. valuable when faced with budget cuts or competing priorities
  • granted subsidies effect in lower energy prices (in case of using alternativ heat supply)
  • no expenditure for maintenance and repair
  • running costs are calculable
  • high-quality and efficient heating systems through the application of proven technology
  • co-operation with regional crafts-enterprises and energy suppliers
  • simplified accounting
  • no planning and operation risk
  • protection of resources and environment
  • reduction of investment - increased profits
  • competitive edge through lower market prices
  • highest quality standards for the heating plant
  • time and cost savings - installation, operation, management, maintenance, repair, 24h-emergency service, fuel supply is taken over by the contractor
  • protection of resources through compliance with legal standards (EnEV, BImSchV)
  • no guarantee claims against developer

Examples on successful PPP implementation(1)

Biomass heating plant, school in Mauerstetten:

Installed capacity: 180 kW biomass

Boiler manufacturer: Herz Feuerungstechnik

Year of implement.: 2004

Storage: 60 m³

Fuel: Woodpellets

CO2-Savings: approx. 50 tons/a

Investment: 125,000 €

Support granted by: KfW

Planning, O & M: KEWOG Gebäude-

management GmbH


Examples on successful PPP implementation(2)

Biomass heating plant, school in Bad Hersfeld:

Installed capacity: 500 kW biomass

575 kW oil peak load boiler

Boiler manufacturer: Herz Feuerungstechnik

Year of implement.: 2004

Storage: 65 m³

Fuel: Wood pellets

CO2-Savings: approx. 210 tons/a

Investment: 300,000 €

Planning, O & M: KEWOG Gebäude-

management GmbH


Examples on successful PPP implementation(3)

Biomass container heating plant, school in Bad Hersfeld:

Installed capacity: 350 kW biomass

300 kW oil peak load boiler

Boiler manufacturer: Fröling

Year of implement.: 2004

Storage: 35 m³

Fuel: Wood pellets

CO2-Savings: approx. 80 tons/a

Investment: 150,000 €

Planning, O & M: KEWOG Gebäude-

management GmbH


Promotional activities in the region

  • Information on available technologies and market potentials
  • Analysis of technical and financial aspects
  • Recommendation of relevant funding programmes
  • Establishment of co-operation schemes beyond RTD
  • Cross-border exchange of information and know-how

Actions carried out

  • Organisation of co-operation / study tours
  • Organisation of conferences / workshops / seminars
  • Edition of brochures / handbooks / information leaflets
  • Internet information platforms
  • Elaboration of market actor lists
  • Publication of best practice / success stories
  • Project proposal screening and submission

The OPET Network

An efficient flow of knowledge between energy research and the European energy markets

  • Transferringthe results of European and member state energy RTD that supports European Policy priorities into successful technology deployment within the market, for the benefit of all European citizens
  • Translating European energy policy priorities into concrete actions at local, regional and European level
  • Accelerating the pace of innovation

OPET Buildings

Promoting Energy Technologies

in the Building Sector


  • best practice showcases database on energy technologies successfully integrated into buildings
  • guide - use of wood fuels in municipal service buildings: steps to develop a successful municipal heating project
  • helpful tools to implement energy contracting and life-cycle cost assessment

Thematic brochuresA series of thematic brochures has been produced by the OPET partners, each of wich include:

  • an overview of the promotion and dissemination actions undertaken by the OPET partners in each of these areas;
  • an up-to-date presentation of key issues in the field, relevant policy directives, trends and barriers;
  • a description of project results, including good practice showcases and future recommendations.

Interested in the Good Practice Catalogue and/or Thematic Brochures?

Please enlist your name and address to order the CD-ROM and/or selected brochures

The service is free of charge.

The material will be sent to you upon publication, presumably by July 05.


 Promotion and dissemination of results of technology research and demonstration projects ... ... continues to be a priority within the European Commission’s 6th and 7th Framework Programme 


Thank you very much for your attention


Member of the OPET Network

Dipl.-Ing. Klaus Grepmeier

Wieshuberstraße 3

D-93059 Regensburg

 +49 (0)941 464 19-0

 +49 (0)941 464 19-10